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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Perennial herb; roots fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like, from rhizomes. Stem: erect, fleshy. Leaf: simple, pinnate-lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate; petiole widened, clasping; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; pedicels generally elongate, recurved in fruit or not. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes linear to lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, lobes hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments hairy; ovary chamber 1, style 1, exserted, stigmas 2, base persistent. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown, net-like.Key to Hydrophyllum
8 species: North America. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731]
Rhizome short. Stem: 6–60 cm, short-hairy or with reflexed bristles. Leaf: 5–40 cm; petiole 2–15 cm; blade oblong to oblong-ovate, deep-lobed to compound, leaflets 0 or 7–15, oblong, entire or deep-cut, obtuse or acute, teeth generally 2–4 per side, lower leaflet pairs generally distinct, terminal widely merged. Inflorescence: well above ground, generally > subtending leaves; peduncle 5–30 cm; pedicels 2–5 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm, < 13 mm in fruit; corolla 6–10 mm, lobes 4–6 mm, white to lavender or white with lavender marks; anthers 1–2 mm; style 7–19 mm. Seed: generally 2.
Moist, shaded slopes, woodland, meadows, streambanks, chaparral; 600–3000 m. Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area; to Oregon, Utah, Arizona. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
Next taxon: Hydrophyllum tenuipes
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Hydrophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28634, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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