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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
[Biennial or] perennial herb from rhizomes [taproots]; roots fleshy-fibrous and fibrous [or tuber-like]. Stem: suberect to erect, simple or branched, fleshy, or 0 and leaves from rhizomes. Leaf: simple, pinnate-[palmate-]lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate, mottled white in shade; petiole widened, proximally purple, bases clasping, persistent, fleshy, juicy; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially, basal pair free, terminal ± united. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; peduncles proximally purplish, in fruit erect or recurved; pedicels generally elongate, in fruit spreading or recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes generally equal, generally ± alike, linear to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate, generally ± enlarging in fruit, sinus appendages 0 [present]; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, white, cream, ± green, purple, or blue, tube with linear scales at base forming channeled pollinator guide, lobes with nectary gland on midvein, hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments at mid-level generally hairy; ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal, style 1, exserted, glabrous, cleft < 1/4, stigmas 2, base persistent, disk proximal to ovary. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown or yellow- or red-brown, net-like, fleshy appendages 0.Key to Hydrophyllum
11 species: North America; some cultivated as ornamentals. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731] Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum raised to species rank, as Hydrophyllum alpestre.
Unabridged references: [Beckmann 1979 Amer J Bot 66:1053–1061]
Plant 6–60 cm; rhizome short to elongate. Stem: short-hairy or with reflexed bristles. Leaf: petiole 2–15 cm; blade 5–40 cm, oblong to oblong-ovate, deep-lobed to compound, leaflets 0 or 7–15, oblong, entire or deep-cut, obtuse or acute, teeth generally 2–4 per side, proximal leaflet pairs generally distinct, terminal merged. Inflorescence: well above ground, generally > subtending leaves; peduncle 5–30 cm, in fruit erect; pedicels 2–6 mm, in fruit to 10 mm, recurved. Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm; corolla 6–10 mm, lobes 4–6 mm, white to lavender or white with lavender marks; anthers 1–2 mm; style 7–19 mm. Seed: generally 2, ± 3 mm, brown.
Moist, shaded slopes, woodland, meadows, streambanks, chaparral, including serpentine soils; 375–3000 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area; to Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
Next taxon: Hydrophyllum tenuipes
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jan 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hydrophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28634, accessed on Jan 30 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hydrophyllum occidentale|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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