|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
[Biennial or] perennial herb from rhizomes [taproots]; roots fleshy-fibrous and fibrous [or tuber-like]. Stem: suberect to erect, simple or branched, fleshy, or 0 and leaves from rhizomes. Leaf: simple, pinnate-[palmate-]lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate, mottled white in shade; petiole widened, proximally purple, bases clasping, persistent, fleshy, juicy; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially, basal pair free, terminal ± united. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; peduncles proximally purplish, in fruit erect or recurved; pedicels generally elongate, in fruit spreading or recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes generally equal, generally ± alike, linear to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate, generally ± enlarging in fruit, sinus appendages 0 [present]; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, white, cream, ± green, purple, or blue, tube with linear scales at base forming channeled pollinator guide, lobes with nectary gland on midvein, hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments at mid-level generally hairy; ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal, style 1, exserted, glabrous, cleft < 1/4, stigmas 2, base persistent, disk proximal to ovary. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown or yellow- or red-brown, net-like, fleshy appendages 0.Key to Hydrophyllum
11 species: North America; some cultivated as ornamentals. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731] Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum raised to species rank, as Hydrophyllum alpestre.
Unabridged references: [Beckmann 1979 Amer J Bot 66:1053–1061]
Plant 6–60 cm; rhizome short to elongate. Stem: short-hairy or with reflexed bristles. Leaf: petiole 2–15 cm; blade 5–40 cm, oblong to oblong-ovate, deep-lobed to compound, leaflets 0 or 7–15, oblong, entire or deep-cut, obtuse or acute, teeth generally 2–4 per side, proximal leaflet pairs generally distinct, terminal merged. Inflorescence: well above ground, generally > subtending leaves; peduncle 5–30 cm, in fruit erect; pedicels 2–6 mm, in fruit to 10 mm, recurved. Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm; corolla 6–10 mm, lobes 4–6 mm, white to lavender or white with lavender marks; anthers 1–2 mm; style 7–19 mm. Seed: generally 2, ± 3 mm, brown.
Moist, shaded slopes, woodland, meadows, streambanks, chaparral, including serpentine soils; 375–3000 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area; to Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
Next taxon: Hydrophyllum tenuipes
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hydrophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28634, accessed on Apr 25 2015
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hydrophyllum occidentale|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month