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ARALIACEAE GINSENG FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree, woody vine; juvenile, flower plants generally unlike. Stem: generally branched. Leaf: simple or compound, generally alternate; stipules ± fused to ± sheathing, petiole base or 0. Inflorescence: umbels 1 to panicled; bracts deciduous or not. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, generally < 5 mm; sepals generally 5, fused at base, inconspicuous, persistent; petals generally 5, free, ± white to green, deciduous; stamens generally 5, generally alternate petals; ovary inferior, chambers 1–15, 1-ovuled, styles as many as chambers, free or fused, persistent. Fruit: berry or drupe, occasionally flat, dry.
47 genera, 1350 species: especially tropics, subtropics medicinal (e.g., Panax, ginseng; Aralia, sarsaparilla), ornamental (e.g., Aralia, Fatsia, Hedera, Polyscias). [Plunkett et al. 2004 Plant Syst Evol 245:1–39] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Araliaceae

HYDROCOTYLE MARSH PENNYWORT

Robert E. Preston & Lincoln Constance

Perennial herb, creeping or sprawling, glabrous [hairy]; rhizomes or stem rooting at nodes. Leaf: simple; petiole scarious-stipuled, not sheathing; blade ± round, peltate or not, entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: simple umbels, occasionally spikes, open or dense; bracts 0 or inconspicuous; pedicels 0–many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes 0 or minute; petals obtuse or acute, ± green to ± yellow-white or ± purple, tip not incurved. Fruit: elliptic to round, very compressed side-to-side; ribs ± equal, thread-like, distinct or not; oil tubes 0, fruit wall with individual oil cells; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face flat to convex.
± 100 species: worldwide, especially southern hemisphere. (Greek: water cup, apparently from leaf shape) Hydrocotyle moschata G. Forst., Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, and Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. occasionally reported as lawn weeds.

Key to Hydrocotyle

H. ranunculoides L.f.
NATIVE
Plant fleshy, floating or creeping. Leaf: petiole 5–35 cm, stout; blade generally 2–5 cm wide, round-reniform, generally wider than long, deeply 3–7-lobed, entire to minutely crenate. Inflorescence: peduncles 1–5 cm; umbels dense, 5–10-flowered; pedicels short. Fruit: 1–3 mm, elliptic to round; ribs obscure.
2n=48. Lake margins, ponds, slow-moving streams; < 1500 m. North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, c Great Central Valley, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), Southwestern California (except Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges), w edge Mojave Desert; to eastern North America, South America. Mar–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hydrocotyle, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28607, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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click for enlargement Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
See CalPhotos for additional images
1996 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.