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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae


Elizabeth McClintock, C. Barre Hellquist & Robert R. Haynes

Perennial herb from rhizome, emergent aquatic, glabrous; rooting at nodes; wind-pollinated. Stem: ± erect, unbranched. Leaf: in whorls of 6–12, sessile, linear to elliptic, entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in upper axils, ± sessile. Flower: inconspicuous, generally bisexual (or staminate proximal to pistillate); calyx a minute rim at ovary top; petals 0; stamen 1, off center on top of ovary; ovary inferior, chamber 1, style 1, off-center, ± = stamen, slender, in groove between anther sacs, ± entirely stigmatic. Fruit: achene or thin-walled drupe.
2 species. (Greek: horse tail) [Olmstead & Reeves 1995 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 82:176–192] In Hippuridaceae in TJM (1993); now, along with Callitrichaceae and others, treated in Plantaginaceae.

H. vulgaris L.
Stem: 3–6 dm; distal 1/4–1/2 emergent. Leaf: 1–3.5 cm. Fruit: 2–3 mm.
2n=32. Margins of shallow ponds, springs, marshy, swampy, or wet disturbed areas; < 2700 m. Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau; Arizona, New Mexico, southern South America; much of northern hemisphere. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hippuris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Hippuris vulgaris
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hippuris vulgaris Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.