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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

HILARIA

J. Travis Columbus

Perennial herb, cespitose, rhizomed. Stem: ascending to erect, solid; nodes generally hairy. Leaf: ligule membranous, ciliate-fringed; blade firm, flat to inrolled, sharply acute. Inflorescence: spike-like, generally cylindric; spikelets in clusters, 3 per node, ± equal; clusters wedge-shaped, overlapping, ascending to appressed, hairy-tufted at base, falling as 1 unit from zigzag axis; glumes of cluster together involucre-like. Central spikelet: subsessile, appressed to or nearest inflorescence axis; glumes equal, < floret(s), oblanceolate, keeled, ciliate, tip deeply 2-lobed, lobes lanceolate, awns 3–9, 1 from ± mid-keel, others terminal; florets generally 1–2, lower floret bisexual, upper floret (if present) bisexual or staminate; lemma lanceolate, 3-veined, generally ciliate, tip generally 2-lobed, generally 1-awned ± from sinus; palea ± = lemma. Lateral spikelet: sessile; glumes < to ± = florets, ciliate, lower glume asymmetric with 1 awn from ± middle near margin, generally 2-lobed, lobes unequal; florets 1–4, generally staminate; lemma 3-veined, tip generally ciliate; palea ± = lemma.
10 species: western United States to Guatemala. (Auguste de Saint-Hilaire, French biologist, 1779–1853)
Unabridged references: [Reeder & Reeder 1988 Madroño 35:6–9]

Key to Hilaria

H. rigida (Thurb.) Scribn. BIG GALLETA
NATIVE
Plant 3.5–10 dm, branched above base, generally bush-like. Stem: 1.5–3.5 mm diam at base; node hairs curly. Leaf: generally cauline, generally sparsely to densely tomentose, especially near and sometimes overlapping ligule; ligule membrane < 1 mm, lateral teeth 0; blade < 10 cm, 2–4 mm wide. Inflorescence: 4–10 cm; spikelet clusters 7–11 mm. Central spikelet: glume margin hairs 0.5–3 mm; lower lemma tip sometimes 4-lobed, awns 3, ± from sinuses, central awn 2–5.5 mm. Lateral spikelet: lower glume with 1+ subsidiary lobes, or larger lobe tip fringed, awns 2–4; upper glume tip with 2+ lobes or fringed, awns 1–3, 0.4–2.5 mm, margin hairs 0.5–2 mm; lemma tip 2-lobed, awn 1 ± from sinus, 0.4–2 mm, margin hairs 0.2–1 mm.
2n=18,36,±108. Common. Dry, open, sandy to rocky slopes, flats, and washes, sand dunes, scrub, woodland; < 1600 m. Peninsular Ranges, e&s Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert; to Utah, northwestern Mexico. [Pleuraphis rigida Thurb.] Important forage; some plants from eastern Mojave Desert and Ord Mtn (San Bernardino Co.), with ± straight internode hairs, intermediate to Hilaria jamesii. All year [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Hilaria rigida (Thurb.) Benth. ex Scribn.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hilaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28274, accessed on Oct 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hilaria rigida Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.