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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial herb, cespitose, rhizomed. Stem: ascending to erect, solid; nodes generally hairy. Leaf: ligule membranous, ciliate-fringed; blade firm, flat to inrolled, sharply acute. Inflorescence: spike-like, generally cylindric; spikelets in clusters, 3 per node, ± equal; clusters wedge-shaped, overlapping, ascending to appressed, hairy-tufted at base, falling as 1 unit from zigzag axis; glumes of cluster together involucre-like. Central spikelet: subsessile, appressed to or nearest inflorescence axis; glumes equal, < floret(s), oblanceolate, keeled, ciliate, tip deeply 2-lobed, lobes lanceolate, awns 3–9, 1 from ± mid-keel, others terminal; florets generally 1–2, lower floret bisexual, upper floret (if present) bisexual or staminate; lemma lanceolate, 3-veined, generally ciliate, tip generally 2-lobed, generally 1-awned ± from sinus; palea ± = lemma. Lateral spikelet: sessile; glumes < to ± = florets, ciliate, lower glume asymmetric with 1 awn from ± middle near margin, generally 2-lobed, lobes unequal; florets 1–4, generally staminate; lemma 3-veined, tip generally ciliate; palea ± = lemma.Key to Hilaria
10 species: western United States to Guatemala. (Auguste de Saint-Hilaire, French biologist, 1779–1853)
Unabridged references: [Reeder & Reeder 1988 Madroño 35:6–9]
Plant 1.5–4(6.5) dm, unbranched above base. Stem: ± 1 mm diam; node hairs ± straight. Leaf: generally basal; generally glabrous or scabrous except long-ciliate near ligule; ligule membrane 1–3 mm, generally with lateral teeth; blade < 13(21) cm, 2–3 mm wide, adaxial surface sometimes with short, ± straight, hairs. Inflorescence: 3–7 cm; spikelet clusters 6–9 mm. Central spikelet: glume margin hairs < 0.5 mm; lower lemma awn < 2.5 mm. Lateral spikelet: lower glume 1-awned; upper glume tip unlobed or 2-lobed, awn 0–0.4 mm, margin hairs < 0.5 mm; lemma tip unlobed or 2-lobed, awn 0–0.4 mm, margin hairs 0–0.2 mm.
2n=36,38,72. Dry, sandy to rocky slopes, flats, scrub, woodland; 1000–2700 m. East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert (mostly Desert Mountains); to Wyoming, Texas. [Pleuraphis jamesii Torr.] Apr–Nov [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Hilaria
Next taxon: Hilaria rigida
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Hilaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28272, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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