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Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, submersed, emergent, floating, or on wet ground. Leaf: simple, alternate or whorled, ± in basal rosette or not; blade linear (especially underwater) to round, sometimes sagittate or cordate, base generally sheathing, veins parallel; petiole inflated or not. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, panicle, or 1-flowered, terminal but often appearing ± axillary, subtended by sheathing bract. Flower: bisexual, radial or ± bilateral; perianth lobes 6 (in 2 series) [3,4], petal-like; stamens 3, 6 (in 2 series) [1,4], from various levels on perianth tube, equal or not, sometimes 3 sterile, modified; ovary superior, 1 or 3-chambered. Fruit: many-seeded, loculicidal capsule [1-seeded utricle]. Seed: < 1 cm, longitudinally ribbed [or not].
± 6 genera, 30 species: most pantropical, some temperate. [Horn 2003 FNANM 26:22–45] Some cultivated as orns, some weeds, especially in rice fields. Pontederia cordata L. <Noxious weed> establishes from garden waste. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Eckenwalder, J.E. and S.C.H. Barrett. 1986. Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiaceae. Syst. Bot. 11: 373–391.]

Key to Pontederiaceae

Annual, perennial herb, generally submersed, emergent, or on wet ground. Stem: ± erect, slender, elongate, ± spreading, rooting at nodes or stout. Leaf: alternate, linear, sessile, or ± in basal rosettes, ± ovate [cordate, reniform]; petiole 0 or not inflated, generally > blade. Inflorescence: generally 1-flowered. Flower: ± radial or bilateral; perianth salverform, lobes 6; stamens 3, alike or of 2 sizes, shapes, anthers coiled or not; ovary 1-chambered.
± 12 species: tropics, temperate America, Africa. (Greek: different, anther, from unequal anthers of most species) Flowers developed underwater generally cleistogamous; Heteranthera rotundifolia (Kunth) Griseb. (flowers peduncled; leaves generally not in basal rosette; closely related to Heteranthera limosa) a weed in rice fields in Butte, Yuba cos., possibly elsewhere.

Key to Heteranthera

H. dubia (Jacq.) MacMill. WATER STAR-GRASS
Perennial herb, generally submersed. Stem: often rooting at nodes. Leaf: > 15 cm. Flower: appearing ± axillary; perianth tube ± 1.5(7) cm; stamens 3, alike, anthers coiled.
Uncommon. Still or moving water; < 1500 m. North Coast, Sacramento Valley, Modoc Plateau; North America. [Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small] Vegetatively ± similar to species of Potamogeton, except leaves lack distinct midrib. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Heteranthera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Heteranthera dubia
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2010 Louis-M. Landry

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Heteranthera dubia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.