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URTICACEAE NETTLE FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland

Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, ± green; sepals generally 4–5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate flower: stamens generally 4–5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed). [Boufford 1997 FNANM 3:400–413] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Miller 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:40–68]

Key to Urticaceae

HESPEROCNIDE WESTERN NETTLE
Annual, erect, slender, stinging hairs present; monoecious. Leaf: opposite, toothed. Inflorescence: generally head-like, of both staminate, pistillate flowers. Staminate flower: sepals 4, ± free; stamens 4. Pistillate flower: sepals 2–4, ± equal, fused ± to tip. Fruit: lenticular, enclosed by ovate, sac-like, membranous calyx.
2 species: California, Baja California, Hawaii. (Greek: western nettle)
Unabridged references: [Woodland et al. 1976 Canad J Bot 54:374–383]

H. tenella Torr.
NATIVE
Stem: < 5 dm. Leaf: 4–40 mm, ovate, thin, blunt-serrate; stipules small; petiole ± < blade, slender; crystals generally elongate, rounder in fully exposed plants. Inflorescence: < petiole, ± spheric. Flower: calyx 1–1.5 mm. Fruit: ovate.
Moist, shaded areas, often at base of rocks or shrubs, in chaparral, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, mesic oak woodland; < 1200 m. Central Western California, Southwestern California (uncommon North Coast, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills); northern Baja California. Feb–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hesperocnide, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28033, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hesperocnide tenella Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.