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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

HESPEROCHIRON

Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse

Perennial herb, scapose; root caudex-like. Leaf: simple, in basal rosette, spreading or ascending; blade tapered to petiole, generally entire, generally ciliate. Inflorescence: flowers 1; peduncle erect or spreading, 1–10 cm, slender. Flower: calyx lobes 2–9 mm, generally not alike, glabrous to hairy, ciliate; corolla scales 0, tube generally dense-hairy inside, throat generally yellow, lobes glabrous to hairy, white or ± blue, generally tinged or marked with lavender or purple; stamens included, generally unequal, filament base widened; ovary hairy, chamber 1, style 1, 2–5 mm, stigmas 2. Fruit: capsule, 5–11 mm, ovoid, hairy. Seed: many, ovoid, angular, red-brown, honeycombed or pitted.
2 species: western United States, northern Mexico. (Greek: evening or western centaur)

Key to Hesperochiron

H. californicus (Benth.) S. Watson
NATIVE
Rhizomes 0. Leaf: generally > 6, < 8 cm, < 3 cm wide, oblanceolate to elliptic or ovate. Inflorescence: flowers generally > 5. Flower: corolla 10–30 mm, limb 10–20 mm wide, lobes 3–10 mm, oblong.
n=8. Wet meadows, flats, valleys; 770–2620 m. Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, s Mojave Desert (Rabbit Springs, San Bernardino Co.); to Washington, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Baja California. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Hesperochiron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28027, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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click for enlargement Hesperochiron californicus
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Gerald and Buff Corsi © 2011 California Academy of Sciences

Bioregions in which Hesperochiron californicus occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.