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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

HERACLEUM HOGWEED
Perennial herb from taproot or clustered roots. Stem: stout, erect, generally branched, hollow. Leaf: blades oblong to round, ternately, pinnately, or palmately compound (simple), leaflets large, lobed or serrate; distal-most cauline generally reduced to large sheaths. Inflorescence: umbels compound, large, margins generally sterile; bracts 0–few, generally deciduous; bractlets generally present, persistent; rays, pedicels many, spreading-ascending. Flower: marginal bilateral, outer petals > others, 2-lobed; calyx lobes generally 0; petals wide, white, ± yellow. Fruit: oblong-ovate to round or obcordate, compressed front-to-back; ribs unequal, marginal thin-winged, veined near outer margin, others thread-like; oil tubes 1–2 per rib-interval, unequal in length; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat.
± 80 species: Eurasia, eastern Africa, 1 in North America. (Hercules, presumably from large stature of some species)

H. maximum W. Bartram COW PARSNIP, GIANT HOGWEED
NATIVE
Plant 1–3 m, stout, tomentose, strong-scented. Leaf: round to reniform; petioles 1–4 dm, widely sheathing, distal sheaths enlarged, bladeless; blades 2–5 dm wide, ternate, leaflets 1–4 dm wide, ovate to round, cordate, lobed, coarsely serrate. Inflorescence: tomentose or long-hairy; peduncle 5–20 cm; rays 15–30, 5–10 cm, unequal; pedicels 8–20 mm. Flower: petals obovate, white. Fruit: 8–12 mm, obovate to obcordate, ± hairy.
2n=22. Moist places, wooded or open; < 2900 m. California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province; to Alaska, eastern United States, Arizona. [Heracleum lanatum Michx.] Only native Apiaceae sp. found from eastern to western North America. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Relationship to some Eurasian taxa unclear.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Heracleum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27996, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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click for enlargement Heracleum maximum
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Heracleum maximum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.