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Key to families | Table of families and genera
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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, perennial herb [shrub], glabrous to bristly or strigose. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched. Leaf: generally cauline, petioled to sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in axils or many in terminal coiled spike-like cymes. Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple; stamens attached on upper tube, included, anthers ± sessile; style 0 or not lobed, stigma 1, linear to disk-like. Fruit: nutlets 2 or 4, erect, generally ovoid to spheric, smooth, roughened, or hairy, scar generally lateral.Key to Heliotropium
± 250 species: temperate, tropics. Ornamental, cultivated for medicinal drugs. (Greek: sun turning, from some species flowering at summer solstice)
Unabridged references: [Ewan 1942 Bull So Calif Acad Sci 41: 51–57]
Annual, taprooted. Stem: ascending to erect, 5–40 cm, puberulent to short-soft-hairy. Leaf: 1.5–5 cm, elliptic to ovate, petioled, obtuse, appressed-short-hairy. Inflorescence: spike-like cymes 2–4. Flower: calyx lobes linear to lanceolate, bristly; corolla 2–4 mm, 3–5 mm diam, salverform, white. Fruit: nutlets 4, irregularly roughened, faintly tubercled.
2n=24,32. Open, often disturbed sites; < 1400 m. n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Modoc Plateau; eastern United States; native to southern and eastern Europe, northern Africa. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum
Next taxon: Hesperochiron
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 22 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Heliotropium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27915, accessed on May 22 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Heliotropium europaeum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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