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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

HACKELIA STICKSEED

Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr

Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often ± woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally ± = blades, ± winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, ± bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.
40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783–1869) Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged references: [Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121–227]
Unabridged note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.

Key to Hackelia

H. velutina (Piper) I.M. Johnst. VELVETY STICKSEED
NATIVE
Stem: 4–8 dm; hairs generally spreading, ± dense below middle, ± dense to ± sparse above. Leaf: velvety-hairy; basal generally 5–17 cm, 0.5–2 cm wide, narrow-elliptic to oblanceolate; lower cauline reduced, ovate to narrow-lanceolate, ± clasping upward. Inflorescence: ± dense, branches several, few-flowered; pedicel 6–20 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx 2–3 mm; corolla tube generally >> calyx, generally ± purple, throat ± closed, limb 12–20 mm diam, generally blue to ± purple (pink), appendages long-exserted, much longer than wide, recurved, 2-pronged at tip, white; anthers hidden. Fruit: nutlets 4.5–6.5 mm, dull, roughened, abaxial prickles many, evenly distributed, ± = marginal.
Dry, open slopes, forest clearings, roadsides; 1350–2750 m. High Sierra Nevada; western Nevada. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Hackelia longituba I.M. Johnst.]
Unabridged note: Though corolla distinctive, mistaken for Hackelia nervosa, Hackelia mundula: the unique long-exserted recurved corolla appendages and overall velvety hairs distinguish it from Hackelia nervosa; the exserted corolla tube, white corolla appendages, and dull, roughened nutlets separate it from Hackelia mundula. A CalPhoto image taken in southern Sierra Nevada shows a pink flowered plant, no doubt indicating introgression with Hackelia mundula. The suspected occurrence of Hackelia velutina in High Cascade Range based on multiple CalPhoto images in the Lassen Volcanic National Park area, though it is uncertain whether voucher specimens exist.

Previous taxon: Hackelia sharsmithii
Next taxon: Harpagonella

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hackelia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27544, accessed on Oct 20 2014

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click for enlargement Hackelia velutina
See CalPhotos for additional images
2009 Keir Morse

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hackelia velutina Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.