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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often ± woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally ± = blades, ± winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, ± bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.Key to Hackelia
40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783–1869) Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged references: [Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121–227]
Unabridged note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.
Stem: generally many, 3–6 dm; mid-stem ± spreading-bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal many, 9–22 cm, 1–2.5 cm wide, narrow-oblong-ovate; cauline 5–9 cm, 0.4–1 cm wide, linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, base tapered, not clasping; lower cauline hairs spreading, bristly, generally >> 1 mm, especially on margins. Inflorescence: few-branched, ± wide, strigose; pedicel 6–9 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx 2.5–3.5 mm; corolla tube < calyx, throat ± white, limb 8–13 mm diam, blue, appendages longer than wide. Fruit: nutlets 3.2–3.7 mm, abaxial prickles 9–13, < marginal.
2n=48. Open, wooded ridges; (300)1200–1700 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada (Butterfly Valley), s Modoc Plateau (Sierra Valley); southwestern Oregon. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Hackelia nervosa
Next taxon: Hackelia sharsmithii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Hackelia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27541, accessed on Apr 18 2014
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