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Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae


Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr

Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often ± woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally ± = blades, ± winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, ± bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.
40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783–1869) Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged references: [Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121–227]
Unabridged note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.

Key to Hackelia

H. bella (J.F. Macbr.) I.M. Johnst. BEAUTIFUL STICKSEED
Stem: 5–7 dm; hairs generally spreading. Leaf: basal generally many, 15–26 cm, 2.2–4.5 cm wide, narrow-elliptic, obtuse; lower cauline 8–13 cm, 0.6–1.7 cm wide, linear to narrow-elliptic, ephemeral; mid to upper cauline 4–10 cm, 14–42 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, base cordate, ± clasping. Inflorescence: open, branches few–several, strigose; pedicel 12–23 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx 3.5–5.5 mm; corolla tube ± = calyx, limb 12–19 mm diam, white, generally ± brown in age, appendages exserted, longer than wide, white; anthers at base of tube. Fruit: nutlets 5–6 mm, abaxial prickles ± 10, << marginal.
2n=24. Uncommon. Openings in forest, ridgetops, roadsides, streambanks; 1200–2030 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges; southwestern Oregon. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hackelia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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click for enlargement Hackelia bella
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1997 Dean Wm. Taylor

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hackelia bella Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.