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GUNNERACEAE GUNNERA FAMILY

Livia Wanntorp & Elizabeth McClintock

Perennial herb, often large, terrestrial [semi-aquatic]; rhizome often with large scales. Stem: ± 0. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often large; stipules 0; blades < to > petioles, ± round to reniform or ovate, generally toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: panicle (generally spikes along 1° axis), terminal or from upper axils, large; flowers many, often pistillate below, staminate above, bisexual between. Flower: very small, unisexual or bisexual; sepals generally 2 [± 0]; petals 2 [0]; stamens 1–2; ovary inferior, chamber 1, styles 2. Fruit: drupe.
1 genus, ± 35 species: Mexico, southern hemisphere, Hawaii; several cultivated. Rhizome scales previously interpreted as stipules. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

GUNNERA
(J.E. Gunner, Norwegian bishop, botanist, 1718–1773) [Wanntorp & De Craene 2005 Int J Plant Sci 166:945–953] Plants obtain fixed nitrogen from cyanobacteria (Nostoc) living just under surface of rhizomes, roots, in the only such symbiosis in angiosperms.

G. tinctoria (Molina) Mirb. CHILEAN-RHUBARB
NATURALIZED
Rhizome scales 10–20 cm, deeply cut. Leaf: covered with stiff, hard prickles; petiole 1–1.5 m; blade 1–2 m, ± round, ± concave abaxially, thick, rough, main lobes palmate, teeth irregular, veins prominent, especially abaxially. Inflorescence: arising ± from ground, 50–75[100] cm, < 10 cm wide, ± conic; spikes many, dense, 2–5 cm, stout; peduncle generally 2–20 cm. Flower: style < 1.2 mm, >= sepals. Fruit: many, 1–2 mm, ± red, ovate to oblong.
Uncommon. Disturbed, shaded, damp areas; < 100 m. Central Coast (Marin, San Francisco cos.); native to Chile. May spread aggressively by seeds, rhizomes. Jul–Oct WEEDINESS: Potentially problematic weed [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Gunnera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27405, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Gunnera tinctoria Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.