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PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

GRATIOLA HEDGE-HYSSOP

Dwayne Estes

Annual; herbage glabrous proximally, glandular-puberulent distally; roots fibrous. Stem: erect to decumbent, < 30 cm, rounded to ± 4-angled. Leaf: cauline, opposite, sessile or ± clasping, subentire to dentate, palmately veined. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per leaf axil, pedicelled, bractlets present or 0. Flower: sepals 5, generally free; corolla 5-lobed, tube 4-angled, > lobes, ± purple-lined, upper lip 2-lobed or notched, lower 3-lobed; fertile stamens 2, anther sacs of each stamen separated, parallel; ovary subtended by nectary, stigma weakly 2-lobed. Fruit: septicidal and loculicidal, 4-valved, 3–6 mm, ovoid to spheric. Seed: many, 0.5–0.9 mm, coat net-like, ± brown.
± 25 species: temperate, tropical mountains, North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, South America. (Latin: grace or favor, from supposed medicinal quality) [Estes & Small 2008 Syst Bot 33:176–182]

Key to Gratiola

G. neglecta Torr. CLAMMY HEDGE-HYSSOP
NATIVE
Stem: erect, simple to branched, < 30 cm. Leaf: 5–50 mm, narrowly elliptic to obovate, base sessile to subclasping and generally wedge-shaped, tip acute to obtuse, margin subentire to dentate toward tip. Inflorescence: pedicels 10–30 mm, slender, spreading to ascending; bractlets 2, sepal-like, >= calyx. Flower: sepals free, equal, 4–6 mm, lanceolate, acuminate; corolla 7–12 mm, tube ± yellow or ± white, limb white. Fruit: 4–6 mm, ovoid, valve tips acute. Seed: 0.5–0.6 mm, 0.2–0.3 mm wide.
2n=18. Wet, muddy places, vernal pools, sandbars, lake margins; < 2000 m. c North Coast (Mendocino Co.), w Klamath Ranges (Humboldt Co.), High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia, southeastern Canada, South Carolina, central Alabama, southeastern Texas, north-central Arizona; naturalized in western Europe. Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Gratiola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27298, accessed on Sep 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Gratiola neglecta Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.