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Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Plantaginaceae
Annual; herbage glabrous proximally, glandular-puberulent distally; roots fibrous. Stem: erect to decumbent, < 30 cm, rounded to ± 4-angled. Leaf: cauline, opposite, sessile or ± clasping, subentire to dentate, palmately veined. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per leaf axil, pedicelled, bractlets present or 0. Flower: sepals 5, generally free; corolla 5-lobed, tube 4-angled, > lobes, ± purple-lined, upper lip 2-lobed or notched, lower 3-lobed; fertile stamens 2, anther sacs of each stamen separated, parallel; ovary subtended by nectary, stigma weakly 2-lobed. Fruit: septicidal and loculicidal, 4-valved, 3–6 mm, ovoid to spheric. Seed: many, 0.5–0.9 mm, coat net-like, ± brown.Key to Gratiola
± 25 species: temperate, tropical mountains, North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, South America. (Latin: grace or favor, from supposed medicinal quality) [Estes & Small 2008 Syst Bot 33:176–182]
Stem: simple to branched, 5–20 cm, with 6–12 leafy nodes. Leaf: 7–25 mm, lance-ovate to lance-linear, acuminate, generally subentire. Inflorescence: pedicels 5–25 mm, stout, erect; bractlets 0. Flower: sepals free, equal, 4–7 mm, 6–15 mm in fruit, lanceolate, acuminate; corolla 5–8 mm, throat ± yellow, limb white ± pink-tinged. Fruit: 3.5–6 mm, spheric, 4-angled in ×-section, valve tips abruptly pointed. Seed: 0.6–0.9 mm, 0.3–0.4 mm wide.
Wet, muddy places; < 2400 m. n&c California Floristic Province (except High North Coast Ranges), Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia, Montana. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Gratiola
Next taxon: Gratiola heterosepala
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Gratiola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27292, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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