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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Rhizomes slender. Stem: ± scapose. Leaf: basal, in rosettes, evergreen, blades tapered to base, white-veined to -mottled or not. Inflorescence: ± 1-sided or flowers spiralled; bracts leaf-like, flower bract ± = flower. Flower: sepals ± equal, upper adherent to lateral petals, forming hood ± enclosing column and lip, lower spreading to reflexed; lip proximally ± pouch-like [concave], distally deeply grooved. Fruit: ascending to erect.
± 25 species: especially temperate northern hemisphere, also tropics. (John Goodyer, English botanist, 1592–1664) [Ackerman 1975 Madroño 23:191–198]
Plant 18–35 cm. Leaf: 4–9 cm, lanceolate to wide-elliptic. Inflorescence: dense; bracts 7–11 mm, generally < flowers. Flower: sepals green-brown, upper 6–11 mm, lower 5–9 mm; corolla white, lip 6–10 mm; column 3–5 mm.
2n=22,30. Dry to mesic conifer forest, in decomposing leaf litter; < 2200 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada (except Tehachapi Mountain Area), Central Western California, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, eastern North America, Mexico. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Goodyera
Next taxon: Listera
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Goodyera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27188, accessed on Jul 31 2014
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