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Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Papaveraceae
[Annual], biennial, perennial herb, taprooted; sap yellow. Leaf: basal and cauline, deeply pinnate-lobed, glaucous; 1° lobes entire to lobed. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, 1-flowered. Flower: sepals 2, shed at flower; petals 4, free, obovate, yellow to orange, shed after flower; stamens many, free; ovary chambers 2, carpels 2, style 0, stigma lobes 2, convex. Fruit: linear, dehiscent from tip. Seed: many, ovate to reniform, with shallow depressions, dark brown.
20–25 species: Mediterranean. (Greek: glaucous)
Plant 50–100 cm. Leaf: 5–30 cm; upper leaves ovate, dentate, clasping; stiff-hairy. Flower: petals 2–4 cm. Fruit: 15–30 cm, glabrous. Seed: 1.5 mm.
Uncommon. Disturbed areas; < 1000 m. Central Western California, Southwestern California, expected elsewhere; native to Europe. Possibly naturalized in California. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Glaucium
Next taxon: Hesperomecon
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Glaucium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27038, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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