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GERANIACEAE GERANIUM FAMILY

Carlos Aedo, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, or ± woody, generally glandular-hairy. Leaf: simple to compound, basal and cauline; cauline alternate or opposite, stipules 2, ± on stem. Inflorescence: cyme or pseudo-umbel or 1–2-flowered. Flower: bisexual [unisexual], radial or ± bilateral; sepals 5, free, overlapping in bud; petals generally 5, free, generally with nectar glands at base; stamens generally 5,10[15]; staminodes scale-like or 0; ovary generally 5-lobed, upper part elongating into beak in fruit, chambers 5, placentas axile, style 1, stigmas 5, free, persistent in fruit. Fruit: septicidal [loculicidal], mericarps 5, dry, generally 1-seeded, each persistent on 1 of 5 linear segments of beak that separate from central column by curving or coiling upward.
6 genera, ± 750 species: temperate, ± tropics. Some cultivated for ornamental, perfume oils. [Bakker et al. 2006 Taxon 55:887–896] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Bakker, F. T., Breman, F., & Merckx, V. 2006. DNA sequence evolution in fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA nad1 exons in Geraniaceae and Plantaginaceae. Taxon 55: 887–896; Price & Palmer 1993 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80:661–671]

Key to Geraniaceae

GERANIUM CRANESBILL, GERANIUM
Annual, perennial herb, often ± glandular, especially above. Stem: generally 1–4 mm wide in lower 1/2. Leaf: palmately lobed or divided, ± hairy; segments generally palmately lobed and/or toothed; upper alternate or opposite; blade generally round in outline, base generally cordate. Inflorescence: (1)2-flowered. Flower: radial (± bilateral); sepals ± awned to mucronate; stamens 10, outer 5 opposite petals (lacking anthers in G. pusillum), inner 5 alternate petals, nectary glands 5, alternate petals. Fruit: mericarp generally ovoid, dehiscent, 1-seeded; basal callus generally present, often with long bristles.
± 400 species: temperate, tropical mountains. (Greek: crane, from fruit beak) [Aedo 2001 Anales Jard Bot Madrid 59:3–65; Aedo et al. 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:594–630]
Unabridged references: [Aedo 2000–2001 Anales Jard Bot Madrid 58:39–82, 59:3–65; Aedo et al. 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:594–630]

Key to Geranium

G. robertianum L.
NATURALIZED
Annual, biennial. Stem: decumbent to ascending, 1–5 dm, 1–3 mm wide in lower 1/2, hairs ± sparse. Leaf: blade 3.5–10 cm wide; divided > 0.9 to base or midrib, segments 5, ± sessile to short-stalked, pinnately lobed to dissected. Flower: pedicel 5–20 mm; sepals 6–8 mm, smooth, soft-hairy, awned; petals 10–14 mm, rounded, pink to red-purple; anthers ± purple. Fruit: mericarp 2.5–3.1 mm, net-like, with 1–3 collar-like rings and long fibers at tip, glabrous or hairy, basal callus 0; beak 17–19 mm, narrow tip 4–5 mm; stigmas ± 1 mm. Seed: smooth.
2n=64. Open to shaded sites; < 500 m. North Coast, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; widespread North America; native to Europe, northern Africa, western Asia; alien in South America, China, Madagascar. Apr–Sep [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Geranium richardsonii
Next taxon: Geranium rotundifolium

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 28 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Geranium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26742, accessed on Nov 28 2014

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click for enlargement Geranium robertianum
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© 2003 Monty Rickard

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Geranium robertianum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.