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GERANIACEAE GERANIUM FAMILY

Carlos Aedo, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, or ± woody, generally glandular-hairy. Leaf: simple to compound, basal and cauline; cauline alternate or opposite, stipules 2, ± on stem. Inflorescence: cyme or pseudo-umbel or 1–2-flowered. Flower: bisexual [unisexual], radial or ± bilateral; sepals 5, free, overlapping in bud; petals generally 5, free, generally with nectar glands at base; stamens generally 5,10[15]; staminodes scale-like or 0; ovary generally 5-lobed, upper part elongating into beak in fruit, chambers 5, placentas axile, style 1, stigmas 5, free, persistent in fruit. Fruit: septicidal [loculicidal], mericarps 5, dry, generally 1-seeded, each persistent on 1 of 5 linear segments of beak that separate from central column by curving or coiling upward.
6 genera, ± 750 species: temperate, ± tropics. Some cultivated for ornamental, perfume oils. [Bakker et al. 2006 Taxon 55:887–896] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Bakker, F. T., Breman, F., & Merckx, V. 2006. DNA sequence evolution in fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA nad1 exons in Geraniaceae and Plantaginaceae. Taxon 55: 887–896; Price & Palmer 1993 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80:661–671]

Key to Geraniaceae

GERANIUM CRANESBILL, GERANIUM
Annual, perennial herb, often ± glandular, especially above. Stem: generally 1–4 mm wide in lower 1/2. Leaf: palmately lobed or divided, ± hairy; segments generally palmately lobed and/or toothed; upper alternate or opposite; blade generally round in outline, base generally cordate. Inflorescence: (1)2-flowered. Flower: radial (± bilateral); sepals ± awned to mucronate; stamens 10, outer 5 opposite petals (lacking anthers in G. pusillum), inner 5 alternate petals, nectary glands 5, alternate petals. Fruit: mericarp generally ovoid, dehiscent, 1-seeded; basal callus generally present, often with long bristles.
± 400 species: temperate, tropical mountains. (Greek: crane, from fruit beak) [Aedo 2001 Anales Jard Bot Madrid 59:3–65; Aedo et al. 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:594–630]
Unabridged references: [Aedo 2000–2001 Anales Jard Bot Madrid 58:39–82, 59:3–65; Aedo et al. 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:594–630]

Key to Geranium

G. carolinianum L.
NATIVE
Annual. Stem: generally erect, 1–7 dm; hairs dense, short, spreading or reflexed. Leaf: blade 2.5–8.5 cm wide, divided 0.7–0.9 to base, segments 5(7), oblong to wedge-shaped. Flower: pedicel 3–11 mm; sepals 5–6.5 mm, smooth, short-awned; petals 5.5–6 mm, ± notched, white to rose-pink. Fruit: mericarp 3–4.5 mm, hairs dense, 0.5–1.8 mm; beak 15–19 mm, narrow tip 1–2 mm; stigmas 0.7–1.4 mm. Seed: faintly pitted.
2n=52. Open to shaded sites, grassland, scrub, forest; < 1700 m. Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, c High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), Southwestern California (except Western Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains), Modoc Plateau (except Warner Mountains); to eastern North America; alien in South America, Asia, Europe, Réunion, some Caribbean islands. [Geranium sphaerospermum Fernald] Feb–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Geranium columbinum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Geranium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26710, accessed on Apr 19 2014

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click for enlargement Geranium carolinianum
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham

Bioregions in which Geranium carolinianum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.