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GENTIANACEAE GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

GENTIANOPSIS FRINGED GENTIAN
Annual, perennial herb, glabrous. Leaf: basal, cauline, opposite. Inflorescence: flower 1 per stem or branch. Flower: parts in 4s; calyx tube distinct, lobes lanceolate, acuminate; corolla funnel-shaped, blue (white), lobes <= tube, oblong to elliptic-obovate, obtuse or rounded, ± entire to serrate, jagged, or fringed, without fringes or scales on adaxial surface, nectary pits 0 (nectaries on corolla tube near base); ovary stalked, style short or indistinct, persistent, entire, stigmas 2.
± 15 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. (Greek: resembling Gentiana) Gentianopsis thermalis (Kuntze) H.H. Iltis occurs near California, in Nevada.
Unabridged note: Efforts should be made to find in California Gentianopsis thermalis (Kuntze) H.H. Iltis [Gentianopsis detonsa (Rottb.) Ma var. elegans (A. Nelson) N.H. Holmgren] (stems 1–several, generally branched; basal leaves generally present at flower; corolla (20)35–75 mm, lobes proximally fringed, distally dentate), which occurs very near the state line in Nevada (Washoe County; Lake Tahoe, creek at Incline, alt. 6200 ft., sandy beach along stream).

Key to Gentianopsis

G. simplex (A. Gray) H.H. Iltis HIKERS' GENTIAN
NATIVE
Perennial herb from root-sprouts, stems well separated, 4–40 cm. Stem: erect. Leaf: basal, lower cauline < 20 mm, < 5 mm wide, spoon-shaped, withering early (especially basal), upper cauline several, < 25 mm, < 6(8) mm wide, lance-elliptic, obtuse to acute. Inflorescence: peduncle 1.3–11(14) cm, generally < 2.5(4) × subtending internode, < whole stem. Flower: calyx 9–27 mm; corolla 17–45 mm. Seed: striate-ridged, pointed.
Wet meadows; 1200–3400 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains; to Oregon, Montana. Jul–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Gentianopsis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26681, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Gentianopsis simplex Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.