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GENTIANACEAE GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

GENTIANA GENTIAN
Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: generally simple below inflorescence. Leaf: cauline, opposite (also basal or not). Inflorescence: compact cyme or flowers 1. Flower: parts generally in 5s (generally in 4s in Gentiana prostrata, 4s or 5s in Gentiana fremontii); calyx tube generally > lobes; corolla tube narrow-bell-shaped, lobes spreading, < tube, base of sinus between lobes truncate or generally with a variously shaped, sometimes fringed appendage, nectary pits 0 (nectaries on ovary stalk); ovary stalked, style ± 0 or short, entire, persistent, stigmas 2.
± 400 species: temperate to subarctic, alpine America, Eurasia. (Gentius, king of Illyria, who used roots to treat malaria)

Key to Gentiana

G. fremontii Torr. FREMONT'S GENTIAN
NATIVE
Annual. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1–several, 2–10 cm. Leaf: white-margined; basal 2–13 mm, 1.5–8 mm, wide-spoon-shaped to round, mucronate; lower cauline crowded, < 6 mm wide, spoon-shaped to oblanceolate, upper cauline strongly ascending, < internodes, < 2 mm wide, oblanceolate to linear, acute. Inflorescence: flower 1. Flower: calyx 4–12 mm, lobes narrow-triangular, acute; corolla 7–15 mm, lobes 2.2–4 mm, ovate, acuminate, white to pale blue, abaxially often dark blue, sinus appendages triangular, ± entire or jagged-serrate, acute, white. Seed: wingless.
Wet mountain meadows; 2400–2700 m. San Bernardino Mountains; to western Canada, Colorado. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Next taxon: Gentiana newberryi

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Gentiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26586, accessed on Sep 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Gentiana fremontii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.