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FABACEAE (Leguminosae) LEGUME FAMILY

Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae

GENISTA BROOM
Shrub, spiny or unarmed; generally deciduous. Stem: generally ribbed or angled, green. Leaf: generally alternate, ternately 1-compound or simple, petioled; stipules fused to leaf bases (0). Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, racemes, heads, or flowers in clusters on short-shoots. Flower: bilateral; calyx generally < corolla, 2-lipped, upper 2-lobed, lobes ± 1/2 tube, lower generally 3-toothed, < upper lobes; petals 5, generally yellow, banner generally ovate or rounded, outside generally glabrous or variously hairy, keel narrowly oblong to obtuse, ± straight abaxially, often silky-hairy; stamens 10, filaments fused; style ± abruptly bent at tip. Fruit: generally dehiscent, narrowly oblong, compressed, or curved, ± inflated; pedicel < 7 mm. Seed: 1–several-seeded, generally arilled.
90 species: Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, Canary Islands. (Latin: from planta genista, from which English Plantagenet monarchs took their name) Generic circumscription difficult, but Pardo et al. (2004 Plant Syst Evol 244:93–119) suggest recognizing Genista in broad sense (i.e., including Retama, Teline, Ulex). Many naturalized California plants are hybrids involving Genista canariensis, Genista monspessulana, and Genista stenopetala Webb & Berthel. (native of Canary Islands; not in California in pure form), although determining parentage in generally often difficult.
Unabridged references: [Gibbs & Dingwall 1971 Bol Soc Brot 45:269–316]

Key to Genista

G. canariensis L.
NATURALIZED
Shrub < 3 m. Stem: twigs silky-hairy in youth. Leaf: stipules < 2 mm; petiole < 6 mm; leaflets 5–10(12) mm, obovate or ± round, length 1–2 × width, hairs sparse adaxially, dense abaxially. Inflorescence: racemes 10–60 mm, terminal; flowers 4–20; pedicels < 5 mm. Flower: calyx 4–6 mm, ± densely silky-hairy; banner 10–12 mm, ovate, notched, glabrous except generally for ± V-shaped hairy area along midrib from base to tip. Fruit: 15–30 mm, hairy, 5–8 seeded.
Uncommon. Disturbed places; < 1000 m. South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges; native to Canary Islands. Feb–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Genista, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26556, accessed on Sep 18 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Genista canariensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.