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RUBIACEAE MADDER FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl California 4(2):1–47]

Key to Rubiaceae

GALIUM BEDSTRAW

Valerie Soza

Annual, perennial herb, occasionally ± shrubby, glabrous to hairy, generally scabrous; dioecious, bisexual, or flowers unisexual and bisexual. Stem: 4-angled, occasionally ridged lengthwise. Leaf: generally in whorls of >= 4, including leaf-like stipules. Inflorescence: panicles, axillary clusters (cymes), or occasionally 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual, or unisexual with sterile stamens or pistils; calyx 0; corolla generally rotate, occasionally ± bell-shaped, generally ± green, yellow to white, occasionally pink or red, lobes generally 4; ovary 2-lobed, styles 2, bases ± fused. Fruit: 2 nutlets or berry.
± 650 species: worldwide, especially temperate. (Greek: milk, from use of some species for curdling) [Dempster 1978 Univ Calif Publ Bot 73:1–33; Soza & Olmstead 2010 Amer J Bot 97:1630–1646] Ovary and fruit generally ± equally hairy on a plant; staminate plants generally identified by vestigial ovaries, pistillate plants generally by vestigial anthers. Galium saxatile L., Galium schultesii Vest, and Galium verum L. are lawn weeds in California.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1973 Univ Calif Publ Bot 64:1–36; Dempster & Ehrendorfer 1965 Brittonia 17:289–334; Dempster & Stebbins 1968 Univ Calif Publ Bot 46:1–52; Dempster & Stebbins 1971 Madroño 21:71–95]

Key to Galium

G. bolanderi A. Gray BOLANDER'S BEDSTRAW
NATIVE
Perennial herb, tufted or ± climbing, woody at base and generally distally, glabrous to scabrous or coarsely gray-hairy; dioecious. Stem: generally 15–36 cm, stout. Leaf: in whorls of 4, in 2 ± unequal pairs, 6–27 mm, narrow to elliptic, tapered at base, acute or abruptly soft-pointed at tip, obscure-3-veined. Staminate inflorescence: axillary clusters. Pistillate inflorescence: flower 1 in axils. Flower: corolla rotate, generally glabrous occasionally sparsely hairy at base, generally red, occasionally ± yellow. Fruit: berry, hairy to glabrous.
2n=66. Open mixed or conifer forest, dense chaparral, generally rocky slopes or banks; 150–2600 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Galium pubens A. Gray]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Galium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26311, accessed on Apr 17 2014

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click for enlargement Galium bolanderi
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© 2009 Barry Breckling

Bioregions in which Galium bolanderi occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.