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Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
200–450 genera, 3000–5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. [Fishbein 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:603–623] Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present ± throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Civeyrel et al. 1998 Molec Phylogen Evol 9:517–527; Rosatti 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:307–401]

Key to Apocynaceae

Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally ± persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes ± spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages ± 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, ± spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if ± conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth].
2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
± 40 species: North America, Africa to Australia. (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) [Liede & Täuber 2002 Syst Bot 27:789–800] Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).
Unabridged references: [Holm 1950 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 37:477–560; Liede 1996 Syst Bot 21:31–44; Liede-Schumann & Meve 2006; Liede & Täuber 2000 Plant Syst Evol 225:133–140; Sundell 1981 Evol Monogr 5:1–63]

Key to Funastrum

F. crispum (Benth.) Schltr. WAVYLEAF TWINEVINE
Plant gray-green, generally ± white-puberulent. Leaf: petiole 4–8 mm, blade 20–90 mm, narrow- to wide-lanceolate, base hastate, cordate, or truncate, margins generally wavy. Flower: corolla 8–12 mm, ± green-purple, especially abaxially, ring of tissue at base free from filament column appendages, lobes ± spreading to ± erect. Fruit: generally 1, 8.5–12.5 cm.
Uncommon. Open, dry, stony or rocky ground; ± 1200[2200] m. Peninsular Ranges (Pinyon Flat, Santa Rosa Mtns); to southern Colorado, Texas, central Mexico. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sarcostemma crispum Benth.]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Funastrum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Funastrum crispum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.