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Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Papaveraceae
Annual, generally glabrous; sap colorless. Stem: branched, 10–70 cm. Leaf: cauline, 2–6 cm, finely pinnately dissected or compound. Inflorescence: terminal raceme. Flower: bilateral; sepals 2, shed after flower; petals 4, cream to purple, persistent after flower, outer 2 petals free, upper spurred at base, inner 2 adherent at tips, oblanceolate, crested on back; stamens 6, ± fused in 2 sets opposite outer petals; ovary ± spheric, style 1, deciduous, stigma dot-like. Fruit: ± nut, ± round, 1-seeded. Seed: 1.Key to Fumaria
± 50 species: Eurasia, Africa. (Latin: smoky, perhaps from odor of fresh roots)
Plant 1–7 dm. Inflorescence: pedicel in fruit > bracts, straight, ascending. Flower: sepals 1.5–3.5 mm; petals 5–9 mm, purple with dark purple tips. Fruit: ± depressed on both sides of stigma or not, not keeled.
Disturbed places; < 1000 m. Central Western California, Southwestern California; native to Europe. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Fumaria capreolata
Next taxon: Fumaria parviflora
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Fumaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26195, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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© 2011 Aaron Arthur
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