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MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel", "peduncle", especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

FREMONTODENDRON FREMONTIA, FLANNELBUSH

Robert E. Preston, R. David Whetstone & T.A. Atkinson

Shrub, small tree; densely stellate-hairy; evergreen. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 7 m; inner bark gelatinous. Leaf: often on spur, ± ovate, generally with 3 main, few to many 2° lobes, otherwise entire; hairs generally denser abaxially, white and/or brown; stipules generally ± 2 mm or ± 4–4.5(9) mm. Inflorescence: flowers generally 1 opposite leaf or on spur; bractlets generally 3. Flower: (23)30–84 mm wide; petals 0; sepals spreading, widely ovate to ± round, showy, tips awned or not, adaxially pitted between raised, hard, fused basal margins, pits puberulent, long hairs on margins present or 0; filament tube ± = ovary, < style, fleshy; ovary (and fruit) sessile. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, 5-valved, 2–4 cm, acute-ovoid, bristly, partly enclosed by dried calyx, chambers 2–3-seeded. Seed: 3.5–5.5 mm, ovoid, dull brown to shiny black.
3 species: California, Arizona, Mexico. (John C. Frémont, explorer in w Am, 1813–1890) [Kelman et al. 2006 Madroño 53:380–387]

Key to Fremontodendron

F. decumbens R.M. Lloyd PINE HILL FLANNELBUSH
NATIVE
Plant decumbent, < 1 m, much wider than tall. Leaf: petiole 0.6–3.4 cm; blade 1.5–5.2 cm, palmate-lobed, soft to leathery, base shallowly to deeply cordate; stipules ± 2 mm. Inflorescence: flower stalk 10–27 mm. Flower: 30–50 mm wide; sepals orange, coppery, or ± red, pit margins (and occasionally surface) with ± 1 mm silky hairs. Fruit: generally not opening without fire. Seed: dull brown, stellate-hairy, aril-like structure present.
Gabbro outcrops in chaparral/pine woodland; 425–760 m. n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Pine Hill, w El Dorado Co.). [Fremontodendron californicum subsp. decumbens (R.M. Lloyd) Munz] Decumbent plants in Yuba, Nevada cos. morphologically, genetically distinct from Fremontodendron decumbens, needs study. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Fremontodendron californicum
Next taxon: Fremontodendron mexicanum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Fremontodendron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26128, accessed on Apr 23 2014

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Bioregions in which Fremontodendron decumbens occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.