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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter

Perennial herb, ± nonglandular, rhizomes short, stolons leafless. Leaf: basal, 1-ternately compound; leaflet teeth generally entire. Inflorescence: cyme, ± umbel-like, open, 1–several-flowered; pedicels recurved in fruit, bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium shallow, bractlets 5, narrower than sepals; sepals, petals ± obovate, generally white; stamens 20–35, filaments ± flat, pollen sac 1, horseshoe-shaped; pistils many, ovaries superior, jointed to stout style on side. Fruit: achenes many on enlarged, fleshy, red receptacle.
± 20 species: generally northern temperate. (Latin: fragrant) [Hancock et al. 2004 Canad J Bot 82:1632–1644] Species intergrade.
Unabridged note: Characters include calyx orientation, fruit size used to define subspecies despite evident lack of taxonomic value.

Key to Fragaria

F. chiloensis (L.) Mill. BEACH STRAWBERRY
Often dioecious. Stem: generally 5–20 cm. Leaf: thick, leathery; petiole generally 2–20 cm; central leaflet stalk 1–10 mm, blade 10–60 mm, obovate, densely hairy abaxially, generally glabrous adaxially, rounded to truncate, teeth generally 7–11, above middle, rounded-obtuse, central tooth << adjacent. Inflorescence: exceeded by to exceeding leaves. Flower: generally 20–40 mm wide; hypanthium bractlets unlobed; sepals 6–10 mm; petals (8)10–18 mm. Fruit: receptacle 10–20 mm; achene 1.5–2 mm.
n=28. Ocean beaches, coastal grassland; < 200 m. North Coast, Central Coast; to Alaska; also coastal South America, Hawaii. [Fragaria chiloensis subsp. lucida (E. Vilm. ex J. Gay) Staudt; Fragaria chiloensis subsp. pacifica Staudt] Feb–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Hybridizes with Fragaria vesca (2n=35,42,63; Fragaria ×bringhurstii Staudt), putative hybrids with Fragaria virginiana (Fragaria ×ananassa subsp. cuneifolia (Howell) Staudt) spontaneous, do not merit taxonomic status.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fragaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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click for enlargement Fragaria chiloensis
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fragaria chiloensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.