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MORACEAE MULBERRY FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore & Elizabeth McClintock

[Perennial herb] shrub, [vine] tree, generally with milky juice; monoecious or dioecious. Leaf: alternate [opposite], petioled, generally simple, entire to lobed, evergreen or deciduous; stipules present. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, head, or flowers enclosed in thick receptacle, axillary. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, small, ± radial; sepals generally 4, free or fused at base; petals 0; stamens generally 4, opposite sepals; ovary generally superior, 1-chambered, style simple or 2-parted. Fruit: achenes many within fleshy calyces or surrounded by fleshy inflorescence receptacle.
37 genera, 1100 species: tropics, subtropics, some temperate; many cultivated (Ficus, fig; Artocarpus, breadfruit, jackfruit; Morus, mulberry). Insect- or wind-pollinated. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Moraceae

FICUS FIG
Shrub, tree, [vine, occasionally rooted on other plants], unarmed; monoecious. Stem: buds inside conic stipules; stipule scar encircling stem. Leaf: entire or lobed, deciduous or evergreen; major veins palmate. Inflorescence: flowers internal, enclosed in an obovoid [spheric] inflorescence receptacle with a small, scaly opening. Pistillate flower: style simple. Fruit: achenes many within fleshy inflorescence receptacle.
± 800 species: tropics, subtropics. (Latin: fig) Pollination generally by small wasps. Reports of Ficus pseudocarica Miq. and Ficus palmata Forssk. based on misidentified specimens of Ficus carica (Whittemore 2006 Sida 22:769–775).

F. carica L. EDIBLE FIG
NATURALIZED
Plant < 10 m. Leaf: petiole 4–12 cm; blade 11–32 cm, widely ovate, ± scabrous adaxially, hairy abaxially, palmately lobed, major lobes generally 3–7, generally > 1/2 to base. Fruit: 5–8 cm, obovoid, green, yellow, or red to purple.
Creeks, riverbanks, floodplains, seeps, disturbed areas; < 800 m. Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast; native to southwestern Asia, naturalized in central America, Australia. Commonly cultivated. Mar–Apr {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ficus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25883, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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click for enlargement Ficus carica
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2005 Luigi Rignanese

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ficus carica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.