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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb, loosely to densely cespitose, generally ± glabrous, rhizomes present or 0; bisexual, dioecious in Festuca kingii. Stem: decumbent, ascending to erect, to 2 m. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath generally persisting; collar generally glabrous; ligule generally < 1 mm, membranous, truncate, minutely fringed; blade flat or rolled, claw-like basal auricles generally 0. Inflorescence: panicle-like, branches dense and appressed to open and spreading or spike-like. Spikelet: glumes 2, < lowest floret, unequal, lower sometimes minute, 1–3-veined, upper 3–5-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets, florets (1)2–10(17), generally bisexual; lemma 3–5(7)-veined, base generally glabrous, tip entire, occasionally minutely 2-toothed, awn 0 or terminal, generally straight, glabrous; palea ± = lemma; stamens 3 or 1. Fruit: obovoid to elongate, free from or ± adhering to palea and lemma.Key to Festuca
500+ species: cosmopolitan. (Latin: straw, stem or straw-like weed) [Darbyshire 2007 FNANM 24:443–448; Darbyshire & Pavlick 2007 FNANM 24:389–443; Lonard 2007 FNANM 24:448–454] As treated here, including ×Festulpia, ×Festulolium, Leucopoa, Lolium, ×Schedolium, ×Schedololium, Schedonorus, and Vulpia. Lolium rigidum Gaudin (combination in Festuca evidently not available), native to Europe and Africa, has been found sporadically as an urban and agricultural weed, but has not been collected in recent years and is doubtfully naturalized.
Unabridged references: [Aiken et al. 1996 onwards @ http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/festuca/index.htm [broken 21.vii.2010]; Lonard & Gould 1974 Madroño 22:217–230; Wilson 1999 Ph.D. Dissertation Oregon State Univ]
Annual. Stem: 1.5–7.5 dm, glabrous. Inflorescence: 2–24 cm, ± open, at least lower branches spreading or reflexed; branches 1 per node, < 7 cm; spikelet stalk angular; generally most florets cleistogamous. Spikelet: 5.5–10 mm; lower glume 2–3 mm, upper 3.5–7.5 mm; florets 2–4; lemma 4–9.5 mm, awn 3.5–12 mm. Fruit: ± 4–6 mm.
2n=42. Disturbed, open, generally sandy soils; generally < 1500 m. California; to British Columbia, Idaho, New Mexico, Baja California. [Vulpia microstachys (Nutt.) Munro var. ciliata (Beal) Lonard & Gould; Vulpia microstachys var. confusa (Piper) Lonard & Gould; Vulpia microstachys var. microstachys; Vulpia microstachys var. pauciflora (Beal) Lonard & Gould] Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Festuca arida Elmer; Festuca confusa Piper; Festuca eastwoodiae Piper; Festuca grayi (Abrams) Piper; Festuca microstachys var. ciliata A. Gray ex Beal; Festuca confusa Piper; Festuca microstachys var. pauciflora Scribn. ex Beal; Festuca microstachys var. simulans (Hoover) Hoover; Festuca pacifica Piper; Festuca reflexa Buckley; Festuca tracyi Hitchc.; Vulpia microstachys (Nutt.) Munro var. ciliata (A. Gray ex Beal) Lonard & Gould; Vulpia microstachys var. pauciflora (Scribn. ex Beal) Lonard & Gould]
Previous taxon: Festuca kingii
Next taxon: Festuca minutiflora
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 8 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Festuca, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25865, accessed on Oct 8 2015
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Beatrice F. Howitt © 2007 California Academy of Sciences
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Festuca microstachys|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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