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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb, loosely to densely cespitose, generally ± glabrous, rhizomes present or 0; bisexual, dioecious in Festuca kingii. Stem: decumbent, ascending to erect, to 2 m. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath generally persisting; collar generally glabrous; ligule generally < 1 mm, membranous, truncate, minutely fringed; blade flat or rolled, claw-like basal auricles generally 0. Inflorescence: panicle-like, branches dense and appressed to open and spreading or spike-like. Spikelet: glumes 2, < lowest floret, unequal, lower sometimes minute, 1–3-veined, upper 3–5-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets, florets (1)2–10(17), generally bisexual; lemma 3–5(7)-veined, base generally glabrous, tip entire, occasionally minutely 2-toothed, awn 0 or terminal, generally straight, glabrous; palea ± = lemma; stamens 3 or 1. Fruit: obovoid to elongate, free from or ± adhering to palea and lemma.Key to Festuca
500+ species: cosmopolitan. (Latin: straw, stem or straw-like weed) [Darbyshire 2007 FNANM 24:443–448; Darbyshire & Pavlick 2007 FNANM 24:389–443; Lonard 2007 FNANM 24:448–454] As treated here, including ×Festulpia, ×Festulolium, Leucopoa, Lolium, ×Schedolium, ×Schedololium, Schedonorus, and Vulpia. Lolium rigidum Gaudin (combination in Festuca evidently not available), native to Europe and Africa, has been found sporadically as an urban and agricultural weed, but has not been collected in recent years and is doubtfully naturalized.
Unabridged references: [Aiken et al. 1996 onwards @ http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/festuca/index.htm [broken 21.vii.2010]; Lonard & Gould 1974 Madroño 22:217–230; Wilson 1999 Ph.D. Dissertation Oregon State Univ]
Perennial herb. Stem: 4.5–12 dm, densely clumped; nodes visible. Leaf: sheath ± scabrous, conspicuously persisting; collar generally densely hairy, rarely glabrous; ligule 0.5–1.5(4) mm; blade 10–100 cm, 1.8–3.5 mm wide, flat or rolled, scabrous. Inflorescence: 10–27 cm, open; spikelets borne near branch tips. Spikelet: 13–18 mm; lower glume 4.5–7 mm, upper 6–8 mm; florets 4–6; lemma 7.5–11 mm, glabrous, awn 1.5–2.5 mm; anthers 4.5–5 mm; ovary tip hairy.
2n=56. Dry, open forest, moist streambanks, chaparral; < 1800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Bernardino Mountains; Oregon. If recognized taxonomically: smaller plants with ± glabrous collars in San Bernardino Mountains assignable to Festuca californica var. parishii (Piper) Hitchc. [Festuca californica subsp. parishii (Piper) Darbysh.]; plants in Santa Clara, San Luis Obispo cos. with longer ligules that generally lack cilia assignable to Festuca californica subsp. hitchcockiana (E.B. Alexeev) Darbysh. May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Festuca bromoides
Next taxon: Festuca elmeri
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jan 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Festuca, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25791, accessed on Jan 31 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Festuca californica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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