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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens 3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Polygonaceae
Annual, perennial herb, vine or not. Stem: erect, trailing, or twining, glabrous or hairy, ribs 0. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled; ocrea persistent or not, cylindric, papery, opaque; blade broad-ovate to triangular, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, spike-, panicle-, or raceme-like; flowers 3–7; peduncle present or 0. Flower: bisexual or pistillate (1 kind per plant); perianth generally enlarging, bell-shaped, pale green or white to pink, glabrous, base stalk-like, parts 5, fused basally or ± completely, of 2 kinds, outer 3 generally winged, > inner 2; stamens 6–8, filaments free, wider basally, glabrous or hairy, anthers yellow to pink or red, ovate to elliptic; styles 3, spreading, fused basally or ± completely, stigmas head-like, fringed, or peltate. Fruit: included or exserted, 3-angled, brown to black. Seed: embryo straight.Key to Fallopia
12 species: America, Europe, Asia, Africa. (Gabriele Fallopio, Italian botanist, 1523–1562)
Unabridged etymology: (for Gabriele Fallopio, 1523–1562, Italian professor of anatomy, botany, and surgery, for whom Fallopian tubes also named)
Perennial vine, rhizomes 0. Stem: woody, climbing, 2–10 m, glabrous, branches from near base. Leaf: ocrea 3–8 mm, ± brown, margins truncate to oblique, glabrous; blade 3–10 cm, 1–5 cm wide, narrow- to oblong-ovate, abaxially glabrous or scabrous on midvein, rarely minute-dotted, adaxially glabrous, base cordate to sagittate, tip obtuse to acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, spreading or drooping, panicle-like, 3–15 cm; peduncle 1–3 cm; pedicels 1.5–4 mm, glabrous or scabrous; flowers 3–6. Flower: bisexual, perianth 5–8 mm, green-white with white wings or mostly pink, bright pink in fruit or not, glabrous, lobes elliptic, tips obtuse to rounded; stamens 6–8, filaments hairy basally; styles fused basally, stigmas peltate. Fruit: included, 2–4 mm, 1.8–2.2 mm wide, dark-brown to black, shiny, smooth.
2n=20. Disturbed places; < 500 m. San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, expected elsewhere; to eastern North America; ornamental native to central Asia often escaping from cultivation; introduced to Central America, Europe. [Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel; Polygonum aubertii L. Henry] Aug–Oct WEEDINESS: Potentially problematic weed [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Fallopia
Next taxon: Fallopia convolvulus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 13 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fallopia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25752, accessed on Oct 13 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fallopia baldschuanica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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