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ZYGOPHYLLACEAE CALTROP FAMILY

Duncan M. Porter

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, often armed; caudex present or not. Stem: branched; nodes often angled, swollen. Leaf: 1-compound, opposite, petioled; stipules persistent or not; leaflets entire. Inflorescence: flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; sepals 5, free, persistent or not; petals 5, free, generally spreading, twisted (corolla propeller-like) or not; stamens 10, appendaged on inside base or not; ovary superior, chambers (and lobes) 5–10, each with 1–several ovules, placentas axile. Fruit: capsule or splitting into 5–10 nutlets (= mericarps).
27 genera, ± 250 species: widespread especially in warm, dry regions; some cultivated (Guaiacum, lignum vitae; Tribulus, caltrop). [Sheahan & Chase 2000 Syst Bot 25:371–384] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Zygophyllaceae

FAGONIA
Perennial herb, shrub. Stem: < 1 m, spreading, angled or ridged. Leaf: palmately compound; stipules stiff, spine-tipped; leaflets 3, spine-tipped, terminal largest. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: sepals deciduous; petals clawed, twisted, purple to pink, deciduous. Fruit: capsule, deeply 5-lobed, obovoid, loculicidal; style persistent; pedicel reflexed. Seed: 1 per chamber.
35 species: southwestern North America, southwestern South America, Canary I. to India, southwestern Africa. (Guy-Crescent Fagon, French botanist, chemist, physician to Louis XIV, 1638–1718) [Beier 2005 Syst Biodivers 3:221–263]
Unabridged species in genus: [35 species: southwestern North America, southwestern South America, Canary I. and Cape Verde I. to Afghanistan and India, southwestern Africa.]

Key to Fagonia

F. pachyacantha Rydb.
NATIVE
Perennial herb; caudex woody. Leaf: leaflets < 25 mm, ± >= petiole, < 9 mm wide. Flower: ± 1.5 cm wide. Fruit: 5 mm wide, hairy, generally with some glands; style 2–3 mm, not or barely wider at base.
Flat, sandy or rocky habitats; < 500 m. Sonoran Desert; to southwestern Arizona, Mexico. [Fagonia californica subsp. pachyacantha (Rydb.) Wiggins] Mar–May, Nov–Jan [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fagonia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25739, accessed on Oct 31 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fagonia pachyacantha Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.