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Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Papaveraceae
Annual, perennial herb; sap colorless or orange. Leaf: basal or basal and cauline, 1–4-pinnate-dissected, segments narrow. Inflorescence: cyme, 1–many-flowered. Flower: receptacle funnel-shaped, tip cupped around ovary base, outer receptacle rim occasionally spreading; sepals 2, fused, shed as unit at flower; petals generally 4 (except doubled flowers), free, obovate or wedge-shaped, generally yellow to orange (white or pink), shed after flower leaving crown-like membrane (inner receptacle rim); stamens 12–many, free; carpels 2, style 0, stigma lobes 4–8, spreading, linear. Fruit: oblong, dehiscent from base. Seed: many, 1–2 mm, round to ovate, net-ridged, prominent-discontinuous-ridged, or minutely pitted, tan, brown, or black.Key to Eschscholzia
12 species: western North America. (J.F.G. von Eschscholtz, Russian surgeon, botanist, 1793–1831)
Annual, erect, tufted, 5–30 cm, glabrous, occasionally ± glaucous. Leaf: segments obtuse or acute. Flower: bud generally erect, glabrous, long-pointed, tip generally > 1/4 bud; receptacle obconic; petals 10–25 mm, yellow, bases occasionally orange-spotted. Fruit: 4–8 cm. Seed: 1.5–2.4 mm wide, elliptic to obovate, net-ridged, brown to black.
2n=12. Open chaparral; < 1800 m. California Floristic Province (except Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Channel Islands); southwestern Oregon. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Eschscholzia
Next taxon: Eschscholzia californica
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eschscholzia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25205, accessed on Jul 22 2014
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