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Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Liliaceae
Bulb elongate of 1–2 fleshy scales, generally with small, bead-like parts of persistent rhizome. Leaf: 2 (1 in non-flowering plant), basal, 6–35 cm, lanceolate to ovate (solitary basal leaf wider), narrowed to petiole, often mottled, glabrous; margin entire to wavy. Inflorescence: peduncled raceme; flowers 1–10; bracts 0. Flower: showy, generally nodding; perianth parts 6, similar, free, ± lanceolate, ± recurved; stamens 6; style 1, stigma entire to 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong. Seed: ± ovoid, ± angular, brown.Key to Erythronium
± 27 species: especially temperate North America. (Greek: red, from flowers of some) Leaf, flower markings to be noted when fresh, because of fading in pressed specimens.
Unabridged references: [Applegate 1935 Madroño 3:58–113; Shevock et al. 1990 Madroño 37:261–273]
Bulb 40–50 mm, slender. Leaf: 9–15 cm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, ± wavy-margined, mottled brown or white. Inflorescence: peduncle 12–35 cm, green or tinged red; flowers 1–3. Flower: perianth parts 25–45 mm, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, white with yellow base, ± pink in age, inner ± with small sac-like folds at base; stamens generally 11–17 mm, filaments slender, white, anthers white to cream or pink to brown- or purple-red; style 6–10 mm, white, stigma entire or lobes < 1 mm. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Erythronium californicum
Next taxon: Erythronium citrinum var. citrinum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 9 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Erythronium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25173, accessed on Oct 9 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Erythronium citrinum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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