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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Biennial, perennial herb; taprooted, roots clustered, or rhizomes; generally glabrous, ± spiny. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally branched. Leaf: basal rosette, cauline; petioles present or 0; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected (entire), generally sharp-toothed or spine-tipped, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented. Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes [panicles]; bracts each generally subtend 1 flower, with scarious membrane enclosing ovary, outer > to >> inner, spiny or not on margins and abaxially; rays, pedicels 0. Flower: sepals spine-tipped, generally persistent; petals oblong to ovate or oblanceolate, white to blue or purple, tip long; anthers, styles generally green, occasionally blue; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: obconic to obovate or narrowly elliptic [round], compressed or not, densely scaly; scales at fruit tip and along juncture of carpels generally larger, longer than on face or base; ribs 0; oil tubes obscure; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face generally flat.Key to Eryngium
± 230 species: America, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand. (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus) [Marsden & Simpson 1999 Madroño 46:61–64] California species variable, intergrading, need study.
Unabridged references: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]
Glabrous. Stem: ascending to erect, 2–6 dm, many-branched 2–5 cm distal to rosette, spiny, glabrous. Leaf: petiole short to 0, << blade; blade 10–30 cm, oblong to lanceolate, deeply pinnately or bipinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads 8–15 mm, ± spheric, in cymes; peduncle 0.5–2.5 cm; bracts 15–30 mm, linear, densely spiny on margins and abaxially. Flower: sepals 3–3.5 mm, lanceolate, margin scarious, entire (pinnately lobed or toothed in Cascade Range Foothills & c Sierra Nevada Foothills), tapered to tip-spine; petals oblanceolate, white or faintly purple; styles 3.5–4.5 mm, generally > sepals. Fruit: 3–3.5 mm, narrowly elliptic; scales dense, ± unequal, lanceolate, acuminate, papillate.
2n=32,64. Vernal pools, wet swales, intermittent streambeds; < 900 m. Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, e Great Central Valley, e San Francisco Bay Area (Diablo Range). Intergrades with Eryngium spinosepalum in southern Sierra Nevada Foothills and Eryngium vaseyi var. vallicola in San Joaquin Valley. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Eryngium vaseyi var. castrense (Jeps.) Mathias & Constance; Eryngium spinosepalum var. medium (Jeps.) Mathias; Eryngium globosum Jeps. var. medium Jeps., illeg.]
Previous taxon: Eryngium articulatum
Next taxon: Eryngium constancei
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 13 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eryngium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25076, accessed on Oct 13 2015
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Eryngium castrense|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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