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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

ERYNGIUM

Robert E. Preston, Michael S. Park & Lincoln Constance

Biennial, perennial herb; taprooted, roots clustered, or rhizomes; generally glabrous, ± spiny. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally branched. Leaf: basal rosette, cauline; petioles present or 0; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected (entire), generally sharp-toothed or spine-tipped, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented. Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes [panicles]; bracts each generally subtend 1 flower, with scarious membrane enclosing ovary, outer > to >> inner, spiny or not on margins and abaxially; rays, pedicels 0. Flower: sepals spine-tipped, generally persistent; petals oblong to ovate or oblanceolate, white to blue or purple, tip long; anthers, styles generally green, occasionally blue; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: obconic to obovate or narrowly elliptic [round], compressed or not, densely scaly; scales at fruit tip and along juncture of carpels generally larger, longer than on face or base; ribs 0; oil tubes obscure; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face generally flat.
± 230 species: America, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand. (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus) [Marsden & Simpson 1999 Madroño 46:61–64] California species variable, intergrading, need study.
Unabridged references: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]

Key to Eryngium

E. articulatum Hook. BEETHISTLE
NATIVE
Glabrous. Stem: stout, erect, 0.3–1.2 m, main stem branching 2–5 cm distal to rosette. Leaf: petiole >> blade; blade 5–10 cm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, coarsely sharp-serrate or irregularly cut. Inflorescence: heads 1–2.5 cm, ovoid to ± spheric, in cymes; peduncle 0.5–2.5 cm; bracts 8–25 mm, outer 2–3 mm wide, inner 1–1.2 mm wide, generally 3-lobed at or distal to middle, ± blue-tinged. Flower: sepals 3–3.5 mm, lance-linear, generally entire, blue-tinged; petals oblanceolate, bright blue or purple; styles 2.5–3.5 mm, ± >= sepals. Fruit: 2.5–4 mm, narrowly elliptic; scales dense, lanceolate, acuminate, with club-shaped papillae.
2n=32. Seasonally wet areas on lake and stream margins, marshes; < 1800 m. Klamath Ranges (Trinity Co.), Outer North Coast Ranges (Napa Co.), Cascade Range, Sacramento Valley, Modoc Plateau; to Washington, Idaho. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Eryngium articulatum var. bakeri Jeps.; Eryngium harknessii Curran]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eryngium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25073, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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click for enlargement Eryngium articulatum
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1996 Dan Post

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Eryngium articulatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.