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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Biennial, perennial herb; taprooted, roots clustered, or rhizomes; generally glabrous, ± spiny. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally branched. Leaf: basal rosette, cauline; petioles present or 0; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected (entire), generally sharp-toothed or spine-tipped, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented. Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes [panicles]; bracts each generally subtend 1 flower, with scarious membrane enclosing ovary, outer > to >> inner, spiny or not on margins and abaxially; rays, pedicels 0. Flower: sepals spine-tipped, generally persistent; petals oblong to ovate or oblanceolate, white to blue or purple, tip long; anthers, styles generally green, occasionally blue; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: obconic to obovate or narrowly elliptic [round], compressed or not, densely scaly; scales at fruit tip and along juncture of carpels generally larger, longer than on face or base; ribs 0; oil tubes obscure; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face generally flat.Key to Eryngium
± 230 species: America, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand. (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus) [Marsden & Simpson 1999 Madroño 46:61–64] California species variable, intergrading, need study.
Unabridged references: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]
Stem: Plant 0.5–3 dm, generally branched within rosette, decumbent to erect with downward-arched branches. Leaf: basal generally > branches; blade 6–15 cm, < petiole, lanceolate to narrowly obovate, sharply serrate or irregularly cut (pinnately lobed). Inflorescence: heads 5–12 mm, spheric, in cymes; peduncle 0.5–1.5 cm; bracts lance-linear, outer 7–16 mm, > heads, with 0–many marginal spines, inner 4–8 mm, spines generally 0. Flower: sepals 1.5–3 mm, lanceolate, entire; petals oblong, white; styles 3–3.5 mm, 2 × sepals. Fruit: 2–2.5 mm, obovate; scales dense, generally ± equal, lanceolate, acuminate.
2n=32. Vernal pools, wet areas, dry lakebeds; 785–2020 m. High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada (Donner Lake), Modoc Plateau (except Warner Mountains); to Oregon, Idaho, Nevada. [Eryngium articulatum Hook. var. microcephalum J.M. Coult. & Rose; Eryngium minimum (J.M. Coult. & Rose) J.M. Coult. & Rose; Eryngium petiolatum Hook. var. minimum J.M. Coult. & Rose; Eryngium alismaefolium Greene, orth. var.] Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Eryngium
Next taxon: Eryngium aristulatum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eryngium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25064, accessed on Nov 30 2015
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© 2011 Steve Matson
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Eryngium alismifolium|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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