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CARYOPHYLLACEAE PINK FAMILY

Ronald L. Hartman & Richard K. Rabeler, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caryophyllaceae

EREMOGONE SANDWORT
Perennial herb, prostrate (non-flowering stems) or ascending to erect to mat-forming, taprooted. Leaf: needle-like to narrowly linear; vein 1. Inflorescence: terminal, open to head- or umbel-like; flowers 1–many; peduncles, pedicels 0–55 mm. Flower: hypanthium present; sepals 5, ± free, 3–7.2 mm, lance-linear to ovate, glabrous to glandular-hairy; petals 5, 2–18 mm, entire or ± notched; stamens on hypanthium; ovary ± superior, styles 3, 2.5–3 mm. Fruit: capsule, ovoid to urn-shaped; teeth 6, ascending to recurved. Seed: 1–9, ± gray, dark brown, red-brown, yellow-tan, black-purple, or ± black.
90 species: northern temperate, especially western North America, Eurasia. (Greek: solitary or deserted + seed, allusion uncertain) [Hartman & Rabeler 2004 Sida 21:237–241] Based in part on molecular evidence (Harbaugh et al. 2010 Intl J Plant Sci 171:185–198), 2 subgenera of Arenaria treated here as Eremogone.
Unabridged synonyms: [Arenaria subg. Eremogone (Fenzl) Fenzl, Arenaria subg. Eremogoneastrum F. Williams]
Unabridged references: [Hartman, Rabeler, & Utech 2005 FNANM 5:56–70]

Key to Eremogone

E. congesta (Nutt.) Ikonn. BALLHEAD SANDWORT
NATIVE
Perennial herb, tufted, ± green. Stem: 8–40 cm, ± dull, often glandular-hairy. Leaf: 10–80 mm, 0.5–2 mm wide, ± fleshy or not, sharply acute to spine-tipped, vein 1. Inflorescence: terminal, generally head- or umbel-like; flowers few to many, dense to ± open; pedicels generally < 7 mm. Flower: sepals 3–6 mm, in fruit < 6.5 mm, rounded to acute; petals 5–8 mm; nectaries < 0.2 mm, rounded. Fruit: 3.5–6 mm. Seed: 4–8, 1.4–3 mm, widely elliptic to ovate, compressed, red-brown; tubercles low, rounded, often elongate. [Arenaria congesta Nutt.] Varieties often intergrade. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: 3 other varieties, extending sp. range to Alberta, Saskatchewan.

Previous taxon: Eremogone cliftonii
Next taxon: Eremogone congesta var. charlestonensis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eremogone, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=24559, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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click for enlargement Eremogone congesta
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© 2003 Dianne Fristrom

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.