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Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae


Peter C. Hoch

Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
165 species: worldwide except tropics. (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326–340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81–95] Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.

Key to Epilobium

E. brachycarpum C. Presl
Annual 2–20 dm, glabrous and peeling proximally, strigose and generally glandular-hairy distally. Leaf: generally early-deciduous, 10–55 mm, linear to narrowly elliptic, acuminate, generally folded along midrib, ± glabrous; petiole 0–4 mm. Inflorescence: panicle or raceme. Flower: hypanthium 1.5–8(16) mm; sepals 1.2–8 mm; petals 2–15(20) mm, white to rose-purple; stamens <= pistil; stigma sometimes 4-lobed. Fruit: 15–32 mm, glabrous or glandular; pedicel 1–17 mm. Seed: 1.5–2.7 mm, papillate, hair-tuft readily deciduous.
2n=24. Common. Dry open or disturbed woodland, grassland, roadsides; < 3300 m. California Floristic Province (except Channel Islands), Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains; to British Columbia, Minnesota, New Mexico, also eastern Canada; introduced in southern South America, Europe. Highly variable, especially flower size. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray; Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray var. jucundum (A. Gray) Trel.; Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray var. laevicaule (Rydb.) Munz; Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray var. tracyi (Rydb.) Munz]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Epilobium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Epilobium brachycarpum
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2007 George W. Hartwell

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Epilobium brachycarpum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.