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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Shrub; generally dioecious; taproot deep. Stem: erect, prostrate, occasionally climbing, jointed, much branched, green in youth; branchlets opposite or whorled, cylindric, longitudinally grooved; pith brown or white. Leaf: simple, 2 (each pair at right angles to adjacent pairs) or 3 per node, scale-like, ± fused at base into membranous sheath, generally ephemeral; resin canals 0. Cone: axillary (terminal), sessile or not, 1–many per node, ovoid or ellipsoid. Pollen cone: bracts 2–3 per node, proximal sterile, distal subtending 2 basally fused bractlets subtending a stalk with 2–10(15) sessile to stalked, anther-like parts with 2 apical pores. Seed cone: stalk 1–11(50) mm, generally straight, naked or with reduced basal bracts; distal bracts in (2)4–10 pairs or whorls, free or fused, brown or green, scarious or fleshy, subtending 2 fused leathery bractlets enclosing 1 ovule. Seed: 1–3(4) per cone (in ×-section, ± round if 1, ± semicircular if 2, ± triangular if 3, etc.), ± spheric to ellipsoid or lance-ovoid, beaked or not.
1 genus, ± 50 species: arid, semi-arid (to tropical) regions of northern Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America. [Ickert-Bond 2003 Ph.D. Dissertation Arizona State Univ] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Cutler 1939 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 57:373–428; Ickert-Bond 2003. Systematics of New World Ephedra L. (Ephedraceae): Integrating morphological and molecular data. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State Univ, Tempe, Arizona, 363 pp; Stapf, O. 1889. Die Arten der Gattung Ephedra. Denkschrift der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 56:1–112]
Stem: spreading to generally erect, 0.3–2(4.5) m; uppermost bud generally conic, generally not thorn-like. (Greek: sitting upon, from jointed stems and/or ancient name for Equisetum, also with jointed stems)Key to Ephedra
Stem: 0.3–2 m; twig ± green, aging yellow, glaucous or not; pith dark brown. Leaf: 2 per node, 1–3.5 mm, generally persistent; sheath splitting, base in age swollen. Pollen cone: 1–many per node, 2.5–7 mm; bracts 2 per node. Seed cone: 1–few per node, 4.5–8(10) mm, ovoid, stalk <= 2 mm, basal bracts reduced; distal bracts 2 per node, free, ovate, red-brown, margins membranous, stalk-like base 0. Seed: generally 1, 4–7(8) mm, generally < 2 × as long as wide, smooth to ± roughened.
2n=14,28. Creosote-bush scrub, Joshua-tree woodland; 50–2133 m. San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert; to Texas, Mexico. [Ephedra clokeyi H.C. Cutler; Ephedra fasciculata A. Nelson; Ephedra fasciculata var. clokeyi (H.C. Cutler) Clokey; Ephedra fasciculata var. fasciculata; Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson var. aspera (Engelm. ex S. Watson) L.D. Benson; Ephedra peninsularis I.M. Johnst.; Ephedra reedii Cory] Cones present Mar–Apr. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Ephedra
Next taxon: Ephedra californica
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ephedra, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=24282, accessed on Nov 26 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ephedra aspera|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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