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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]
Key to Cyperaceae
Annual, perennial herb, generally forming mats, glabrous, internal air cavities evident; caudex generally 0; rhizomes generally evident, long, scaly, bulb or tuber at tip generally 0. Stem: simple, generally erect, smooth, generally not hollow; tip generally not rooting. Leaf: 2, basal, blades 0 or tooth-like, <= 1 mm. Inflorescence: inflorescence bracts 0; spikelet terminal, 1, generally ovate, not ± flat [(± flat)], generally not forming plantlets, flowers 3–100+; flower bracts spiraled [(2-ranked)], each with 1 flower in axil, generally ovate, generally brown, generally membranous, smooth, tip generally acute to obtuse, notch 0; basal flower bract generally encircling stem, generally < 1/2 spikelet, flower generally 0. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts reduced to bristles, 0–8, generally ± <= fruit, barbs generally recurved; stamens generally 3; style 1, thread-like, base enlarged, generally persistent on fruit as tubercle. Fruit: generally obovate, generally brown; tubercle (0 or) generally distinct, generally pyramidal.Key to Eleocharis
± 200 species: tropics to boreal. (Greek: marsh-dwelling grace) [Smith et al. 2002 FNANM 23:60–120] Eleocharis lanceolata Fernald, Eleocharis equisetoides Torr. not in California.
Unabridged etymology: (Greek heleios, dwelling in a marsh, and Charis, grace)
Perennial herb 1–60 cm, often forming mats; rhizome weak, to 0.5 mm diam. Stem: 0.2–0.5(7) mm diam, subcylindric, often 3–12- angled or -ridged. Leaf: distal sheath delicate, often disintegrating, tip inflated or not. Inflorescence: spikelet 2–8 mm, 1–2 mm wide, often 0 on submersed plants; flower bracts to 25, 1.5–2.5(3.5) mm, tip blunt to acute, not recurved, basal with flower. Flower: anthers 0.7–1.5 mm; stigmas 3. Fruit: 0.7–1 mm, 0.4–0.6 mm wide, 3-sided to ± round in ×-section, often ± white, longitudinal ridges ± 8–12, crossbars 30–60 per ridge; perianth bristles 0 (2–4, <= fruit). Deeply submersed variants (Eleocharis acicularis var. submersa (Nilsson) Svenson), which often form large vegetative mats and often long thread-like stems without spikelets, may closely resemble Schoenoplectus subterminalis. Varieties often not identifiable. [Online Interchange]
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Eleocharis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23926, accessed on Apr 19 2014
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