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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, biennial, [perennial herb], shrub; strigose to bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, terminal; branches 3–many, ± spike-like. Flower: radial to ± bilateral; calyx deep-lobed, often longer in fruit; corolla throat straight or ± curved, lobes equal or not; stamens 5, attached below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted. Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovate, 3-angled, scar basal, flat.Key to Echium
40 species: southern Eurasia, Africa. (Greek: viper, from nutlet shaped like viper's head) Several entities cultivated for ornamental, especially on California coast, some potentially naturalized, some may be hybrids.
Unabridged references: [Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37–115]
Annual, biennial, 4–8 dm. Leaf: 2–15 cm, narrow-elliptic to oblong, bulbous-based-bristly. Inflorescence: spreading, 5–15 cm; branches 2–8, ascending. Flower: ± bilateral; calyx 7–12(17) mm; corolla tube ± 2 × calyx, limb 18–30 mm diam, blue-purple; lower 2 stamens short-exserted, upper 3 included. Fruit: black, rough, wrinkled to fine-tubercled.
2n=16. Disturbed areas; < 200 m. c Central Coast, South Coast (San Diego Co.); native to southern Europe, widely naturalized. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Echium pininana
Next taxon: Emmenanthe
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Echium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23837, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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© 2007 Luigi Rignanese
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