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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Charles E. Turner, Robert R. Haynes & C. Barre Hellquist

Annual, perennial herb from caudices, corms, stolons, rhizomes, or tubers, aquatic (± emergent or on mud); roots fibrous, septate or not; monoecious, dioecious, or flowers bisexual. Stem: caudex short. Leaf: basal, simple, palmately veined, floating or not; submersed generally linear to ovate; emergent linear to sagittate. Inflorescence: generally scapose, umbel-, raceme-, or panicle-like; flowers, branches whorled. Flower: radial; sepals 3, generally green, generally persistent; petals 3, generally > sepals, white or pink; stamens 6–many; pistils 6–many, free or ± fused at base. Fruit: achene, generally compressed, beaked.
± 12 genera, 75–100 species: especially tropics, subtropics. [Haynes & Hellquist 2000 FNANM 22:7–25] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Rogers 1983 J Arnold Arbor 64:383–420]

Key to Alismataceae

Annual, perennial herb; roots not septate; flowers bisexual. Leaf: petiole angled; blade linear to ovate, with [without] translucent dots or lines, base tapered to cordate. Inflorescence: axes generally angled; peduncle generally smooth. Flower: receptacle convex; sepals generally 2–6 mm, dark green; petals generally entire, white; stamens 9–15; pistils many, free, spiralled on convex receptacle. Fruit: body ± compressed, generally ribbed; beak terminal [lateral].
± 26 species: America, especially tropics. (Greek: spiny, leathery container, from fruit)
Unabridged references: [Haynes & Holm-Nielsen 1986 Brittonia 38:325–332]

E. berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett
Annual (short-lived perennial herb). Leaf: 8–30 cm; blade coarsely veined; submersed blades linear, wavy, or generally 0; floating, emergent blades 6–14 cm, 3–15 cm wide, elliptic to cordate. Inflorescence: generally > leaves; flowers 1–3(4) per node; peduncle angled; pedicels 6–28 mm, generally ascending. Flower: petals 6–9 mm. Fruit: cluster bur-like; body 1.5–3 mm, ribs generally 5.
2n=22. Ponds, ditches; < 300 m. Inner North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California; to southeastern United States, South America. [Echinodorus berteroi var. lanceolatus (Engelm. ex S. Watson & J.M. Coult.) Fassett; Echinodorus rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm.] Mid-summer–fall [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Echinodorus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Echinodorus berteroi Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.