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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual to perennial herb. Stem: decumbent to erect; internode hollow or solid. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath generally glabrous; ligule generally 0; blade generally flat, linear to linear lanceolate, midrib prominent, upper surface generally glabrous. Inflorescence: panicle-like, of simple or compound branches; branches angular, generally ascending to appressed, axis generally glabrous; spikelets generally many, 1–2 per node, generally subsessile, densely packed on branches. Spikelet: ovoid to compressed, falling as one unit, breaking free below glumes, or not at all; florets 2(3), lower floret sterile or staminate, upper florets bisexual, anthers 3; glumes membranous, unequal, lower < upper, short-bristly to hairy, generally green to ± purple, upper glume unawned or shortly awned; lower lemma similar to the upper glume in length and texture, unawned or awned, upper lemma leathery, dorsally rounded, mostly smooth, tip short or elongate, firm or membranous, unawned; upper palea free from lemma at tip, lower palea vestigial to well developed.Key to Echinochloa
40–50 species: warm temperate, subtropics, worldwide. (Greek: hedgehog grass, from bristly spikelet) [Webster 1993 TJM (1993):1252–1253; Michael 2003 FNANM 25:390–403]
Stem: cespitose or spreading, decumbent to erect, 1–7 dm, rooting from lower cauline nodes. Leaf: sheath 4–9 cm, glabrous; blade 8–22 cm, 3–6(10) mm wide. Inflorescence: 2–13 cm; 1° branches 0.7–2(4) cm, axis glabrous to sparsely strigose. Spikelet: 2–3 mm, 1–1.5 mm wide, pubescent to strigose; lower glume 1–1.5 mm; upper glume ± = spikelet; florets ± equal; lower floret sterile (staminate); lower lemma unawned; upper lemma with a strongly differentiated, early withering tip; palea ± = lemma. Fruit: ± white.
Wet fields, disturbed areas; < 1400 m. e Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, s Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area, Southwestern California, n Desert Mountains, Sonoran Desert; southern United States; native to Old, New World tropics. [Echinochloa colonum, orth. var.] Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Echinochloa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23790, accessed on Nov 25 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Echinochloa colona|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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