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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many , scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]
Key to Cactaceae
Generally erect to ascending, [sprawling, pendent, or decumbent], branched or not, branches generally few–500, occasionally in dense mounds. Stem: 5–60cm, (1)4–15 cm diam, spheric to long-cylindric, soft, not regularly segmented; ribs prominent, 4–13, tubercles ± 0 along rib-crests. Spines: 4–55 per areole, < 2 mm diam, needle- to dagger-like, glabrous to puberulent, straight, curved, or curly; central spines (0)1–6(9). Flower: lateral, near distal margin of spine cluster; perianth purple to lavender, orange, or red [yellow or green]; ovary glabrous, spiny, scales minute. Fruit: spheric to obovoid, indehiscent or splitting laterally, densely spiny, spine clusters deciduous. Seed: 0.8–2 mm, obovoid to ± spheric, dull, wrinkled or tubercled, generally black.Key to Echinocereus
49 species: southwestern United States, Mexico. (Greek: hedgehog + Cereus) [Taylor 1985 The Genus Echinocereus. Timber Press]
Clump-forming or loose, open mounds generally < 0.7 m diam. Stem: < 60, 5–45(70) cm, 4–9 cm diam, cylindric; ribs 10–13; tubercles ± 0. Spines: (8)15–20 per areole, color and shape variable; central spines 2–7, straight to twisted. Flower: short-funnel- to bell-shaped. Fruit: 20–30 mm, spines glabrous.
2n=44. Dry habitats; < 2400 m. San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert; to Utah, Arizona, Mexico. Highly variable; occasionally unclearly divided into varieties. N eeds study. May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Echinocereus munzii (Parish) L.D. Benson]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm.) Lem.
Previous taxon: Echinocereus
Next taxon: Echinocereus mojavensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Echinocereus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23751, accessed on Apr 20 2014
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