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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae


Staci Markos & John L. Strother

1 sp. (Greek: female broom, for style-branch appendages) [Markos & Strother 2006 FNANM 20:450–452]
Unabridged references: [Lane 1992 Novon 2:213; Saroyan et al. 2000 Madroño 47:89–96]

C. filaginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.
Perennial herb, subshrub, generally 10–100 cm. Stem: 1–many from base, decumbent to ascending or erect, simple or distally branched, generally densely white-tomentose, sometimes ± glabrous and/or glandular, especially distally. Leaf: cauline at flower, often crowded proximally, alternate; sessile or wing-petioled; blade 10–70+ × 3–19 mm, linear to oblanceolate, spoon-shaped, or ovate, entire or toothed, hairy, sometimes with sunken glands and/or with sessile bead-like and/or stalked glands; distal smaller, sessile, bract-like. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1 or in cyme-like cluster; involucre hemispheric to bell-shaped, top-shaped, or cylindric, 6–14 × 3–10 mm; phyllaries 30–90+, graduated in 3–9 series, often spreading or with spreading tips, reflexed in age, linear to narrowly lanceolate, stiff-papery to scarious, flat, tips leaf-like in texture, variously hairy and/or glandular; receptacle ± flat or rounded, pitted, with small scale-like projections, glabrous, epaleate. Ray flower: 10–43, sterile; ray white or pink to purple; style 0. Disk flower: 12–120+; corolla 4–8 mm, yellow, tube 0.6–1.4 mm, < narrowly cylindric throat, lobes erect, equal, narrowly lanceolate; anther tip awn-like; style branches linear, ± yellow-bristly; appendages blunt to awl-shaped, length 1/3–1/2 stigmatic bands. Fruit: cylindric to obconic, 2–5 mm, 5–7-ribbed, faces puberulent to long-soft-hairy; pappus 3–8 mm, persistent, of 35–65 free, unequal, coarse, minutely barbed bristles in 1–2 series, ± brown to ± red.
2n=10. Coastal scrub, chaparral, grassland, foothill woodland, forest; < 2600 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California, w Mojave Desert; southwestern Oregon, northern Baja California. [Lessingia filaginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) M.A. Lane var. californica (DC.) M.A. Lane; Lessingia filaginifolia var. filaginifolia] Jul–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Some local populations and regional population systems of corethrogynes present distinct general appearances and the plants have been partitioned into 3 to 7 or more species with various numbers of infraspecific taxa (33 basionyms have been linked to the name Corethrogyne). Lane (1992) referred the plants to a single sp. with 2 varieties within Lessingia, and Saroyan et al. (2000) treated them as a single sp. with two varieties within Corethrogyne. Here, the consolidation is taken one step further and a single, polymorphic sp. with no infraspecific taxa is recognized. For further discussion and additional synonymy, see Saroyan et al.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Corethrogyne, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Corethrogyne filaginifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.