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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial herb from scaly rhizomes or glabrous stolons; dioecious (monoecious). Stem: matted (< 5 cm) to ascending and erect (<= 80 cm), stiff, glabrous, solid in ×-section. Leaf: conspicuously 2-ranked; ligule membranous or fringed; blade flat or ± rolled, if short awl-like, generally glabrous, occasionally with hairy tufts at collar. Inflorescence: panicle- or raceme-like (a single spikelet); spikelets short-pedicelled (sessile), staminate inflorescence sometimes above leaves. Spikelet: unisexual; pistillate generally = staminate, generally laterally compressed; glumes unequal (0), firm, awns 0, lower 3(5)-veined, upper 5–7(9)-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; florets 3–20; lemma wide narrowing to acuminate tip, 7–11-veined, awn 0; palea < or > lemma; keel minutely hairy or scabrous.Key to Distichlis
9 species: North America, South America, 1 sp. in Australia. (Greek: in 2 rows, from leaf arrangement) [Beetle 1943 Bull Torr Bot Club 70:638–650; Bell & Columbus 2008 Syst Bot 33:536–551]
Perennial herb; rhizomes stout, scaly, ± yellow; stolons rarely present. Stem: erect, 1–5(8) dm. Leaf: blade generally 2–10 cm, flat, stiff. Inflorescence: panicle-like, 2–8 cm, narrowly ± cylindric to elliptic in outline, ± dense. Spikelet: 2–20 per inflorescence, 6–20(25) mm, straw-colored to ± purple; glumes 2, 1.5–4 mm; florets 5–15; lemma 3–6 mm; palea ± = lemma, keel ciliate in pistillate florets.
2n=40. Salt marshes, coastal dunes, moist, alkaline areas; < 1550 m. North Coast, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province (except Warner Mountains, White and Inyo Mountains), Desert (except Desert Mountains); southern Canada, United States, Mexico, South America. Apr–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Distichlis spicata var. divaricata Beetle; Distichlis spicata var. nana Beetle; Distichlis spicata var. stolonifera Beetle; Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Torr.) Scribn.]
Previous taxon: Distichlis littoralis
Next taxon: Echinochloa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Distichlis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23161, accessed on Aug 29 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Distichlis spicata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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