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J. Chris Pires, except as noted

Perennial herb from corm, outer coat fibrous [membranous]. Leaf: basal, 1–10, linear to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: scapose, generally umbel-like; scape erect, generally 1(2), cylindric, generally rigid, occasionally wavy to twining; flower bracts 2–4[10], not enclosing flower buds. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, free or ± fused below into tube; staminodes 0 or 3; stamens 3 or 6, free or fused to perianth, occasionally appendaged; ovary superior, chambers 3, ovules 2–several per chamber. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal.
10–11 genera, 60–70 species: western North America. [Pires & Sytsma 2002 Amer J Bot 89:1342–1359] —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Themidaceae


J. Chris Pires & Glenn Keator

Daughter corms generally sessile. Leaf: 2–5, generally keeled, entire, glabrous, occasionally withered by flowering. Inflorescence: raceme- or umbel-like, generally dense; scape generally curved, twisted, or twining, cylindric; bracts ± papery; pedicels generally < flowers. Flower: perianth tube cylindric to bell-shaped, appendages at junction of tube, lobes forming crown; staminodes 0 (3, stamen-like); stamens 3, equal, or 6, unequal, 3 smaller, filaments fused to perianth tube, forming crown-like tube outside anthers, anthers attached at base; style 1, stigma weakly 3-lobed. Fruit: generally sessile, generally ovoid, 3-angled. Seed: sharp-angled, black-crusted.
5 species: western United States, especially northern California, northern Mexico. (Greek: toothed crown, from perianth appendages) [Keator 1992 Four Seasons 9:24–39]

Key to Dichelostemma

D. volubile (Kellogg) A. Heller TWINING BRODIAEA, SNAKE LILY
Leaf: 3–4, 30–70 cm, keeled. Inflorescence: umbel-like, dense; scape 40–150 cm, twining, scabrous; bracts 12–15 mm, wide-ovate, acute, ± pink; pedicels 10–40 mm; flowers 6–30, occasionally horizontal in flower, erect in fruit. Flower: perianth pink (white), tube 5–7 mm, ± spheric, narrowed above ovary, angles 6, sac-like, lobes ± spreading (ascending in fruit), 5–7 mm, crown folding inward toward, hiding anthers, 3–4 mm, narrow-lanceolate, white; staminodes 3, alternate stamens, ± 3 mm, linear-oblong, stamen-like, cream-white, ciliate-dentate, tip generally notched; stamens 3, anthers 3–4 mm; ovary 4–5 mm, ± spheric, stalk 0 or short, style 3–4 mm.
n=9,18. Foothill woodland, chaparral scrub; 100–1600 m. Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills. [Macroscapa volubilis Kellogg; Brodiaea californica (Torr.) Jeps. 1911, not Lindl. 1849; Brodiaea volubilis (Kellogg) Baker; Dichelostemma californicum (Torr.) Alph. Wood; Hookera volubilis (Kellogg) Jeps.; Rupalleya volubilis (Kellogg) Morière; Stropholirion californicum Torr.] May–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dichelostemma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Dichelostemma volubile
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dichelostemma volubile Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.