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PAPAVERACEAE POPPY FAMILY

Gary L. Hannan & Curtis Clark, except as noted

Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Papaveraceae

DICENTRA

Gary L. Hannan

Perennial herb, glabrous, glaucous or not; sap colorless. Leaf: basal, deeply dissected, segments often lobed. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or 1-flowered. Flower: biradial, nodding to erect; sepals 2, shed after flower; petals 4, white or cream to pale yellow to pink or pink-tipped, persistent or not, outer 2 free, lanceolate, alike, both pouched at base, inner 2 adherent at tips, oblanceolate, ± crested on back; stamens 6, ± fused in 2 sets opposite outer petals; ovary cylindric to long-conic, placentas 2, style 1, stigma lobes 2. Fruit: oblong, fusiform to ovate, or conic, dehiscent from tip. Seed: few, 1–2 mm, oblong to reniform, smooth to finely netted, black; fleshy appendage present.
18 species: North America, Asia; some ornamental. (Greek: twice spurred, from outer petals) Other species in TJM (1993) moved to Ehrendorferia (Liden et al. 1997 Plant Syst Evol 206:411–420).

Key to Dicentra

D. nevadensis Eastw. TULARE COUNTY BLEEDING HEART
NATIVE
Plant 20–45 cm, rhizomed. Leaf: 2-ternate-dissected, 15–25 cm. Inflorescence: 2–20-flowered. Flower: nodding; outer petals 12–18 mm, white to pale yellow or ± pink, drying black; base of central stamen of each set looped into base of outer petal. Fruit: 13–20 mm, oblong.
Meadows, in gravelly soils; 2200–3100 m. s High Sierra Nevada (Sequoia, Kings Canyon national parks, Tulare Co.). Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Next taxon: Dicentra pauciflora

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dicentra, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=22768, accessed on Sep 16 2014

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click for enlargement Dicentra nevadensis
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Charles Webber © 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dicentra nevadensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.